Many people have been involved in the creation of what
I am terming "Ourstory" (Not his story, or her story, but Our Story). A list of contributors follows.
This page is under construction and Ourstory is in the process of being fact-checked. There are also about 20 pages
of historical events to be added in. The list grows quickly. A special "Thank You" to all who are -
and want - to be involved. This time line of our often buried history has been fascinating to construct. More
Please feel free to use the comment box above for corrections and additions.
Thank You for Your time.
George Badillo, Su Budd, Maggie Bennington-Davis, Gayle Bluebird, Celia Brown, Jacob Bucher, Angela Cerio, Oryx Cohen, Richard
Cohen, Ted Chabasinski, Amy Coleante, Eva Dech, Mark Davis, Deb Damone, Doug DeVoe,
Gloria Gervais, George Ebert, Mike Halligan, Daniel Hazen, Kevin Huckshorn, Vanessa Jackson, Daniel Fisher, Leonard Roy Frank,
Larry Fricks, Ben Hansen, Daniel Hazen, Ellen Healion, Karen Henninger, Marry Maddock, John McCarthy, Richard McDonald, Traci
Murry, David Oaks, Stephanie Orlando, Darby Penney, Pat Risser, Joseph Rogers, Susan Rogers, Ruth Ruth, Dally Sanchez, Judene
Shelley, Y Z Smith, Lauren Spiro, Peggy Swarbrick, Lauren Tenney, Can Truong, Carlton Whitmore, Debbie Whittle, Sally Zinman,
and You - (fill out the form above with a tidbit of knowledge!).
Major Works Utilized:
(footnotes to be added)
Gail Hornstein’s First Person Accounts
of Madness, Third Edition; Judi Chamberlin’s works; Vanessa Jacksons’ works; Pat Risser’s time line; www.mindfreedom.org;
http://www.aglp.org/gap/timeline.htm; http://www.menstuff.org/issues/byissue/mentalhealthtimeline.html; http://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/history/history_article2.shtml;
wikipedia; and the world wide web.
A living history.
1620 Petition of the Poor Distracted People in the House of Bedlam (concerned with conditions
1739 The London-Citizen
Exceedingly Injured; or, a British Inquisition Display’d, in an Account of the Unparallel’d Case of a Citizen
of London, Bookseller to the Late Queen, Who Was in a Most Unjust and Arbitrary Manner Sent on the 23rd of March Last, 1738,
by One Robert Wightman, a Mere Stranger, to a Private Madhouse. London: T. Cooper by Cruden, Alexander.
1740 Mr. Cruden Greatly Injured: An Account of a Trial
between Mr. Alexander Cruden, Bookseller to the Late Queen, Plaintif, and Dr. Monro, Matthew Wright, John Oswald, and John
Davis, Defendants; in the Court of the Common-Pleas in Westminster Hall July 17, 1739, on an Action of Trespass, Assault and
Imprisonment: the Said Mr. Cruden, Tho’ in His Right Senses, Having Been Unjustly Confined and Barbarously Used
in the Said Matthew Wright’s Private Madhouse at Bethnal-Green for Nine Weeks and Six Days, till He Made His Wonderful
Escape May 31, 1738. To Which is Added a Surprising Account of Several Other Persons, Who Have Been Mostly Unjustly
Confined in Private Madhouses. London: A. Injured. Alexander Cruden
First mental hospital in the United States, Pennsylvania University Hospital where a basement was reserved for people identified
as mentally ill.
1754 The Adventures of Alexander the Corrector, Wherein Is
Given an Account of His Being Unjustly Sent to Chelsea, and of His Bad Usage during the Time of his Chelsea Campaign . . .
with an Account of the Chelsea-Academies, or the Private Places for the Confinement of Such As Are Supposed to Be Deprived
of the Exercise of Their Reason. by Alexander Cruden.
In the 1770s, the earliest recorded mutual self-help societies of individuals with alcohol abuse problems are created by Native
1773 The first mental health hospital in U.S., named Eastern State
Hospital, opens in Williamsburg, Virginia.
1774 One More
Proof of the Iniquitous Abuse of Private Madhouses. Samuel Bruckshaw.
1774 The Case, Petition, and Address of Samuel Bruckshaw, who Suffered a Most Severe Imprisonment,
for Very Near the Whole Year, Loaded with Irons, without Being Heard in his Defense, Nay Even without Being Accused, and at
Last Denied an Appeal to a Jury. Humbly Offered to the Perusal and Consideration of the Public. Samuel Bruckshaw.
1793 According to psychiatric legend, French psychologist
Phillip Pinel strikes the chains from mental patients held in the Bastille in France. Philip Pinel (1745-1826), the leading
French psychiatrist of his day, was the first to say that the "mentally deranged" were diseased rather than sinful
or immoral. In 1793, he removed the chains and restraints from the inmates at the Bicetre asylum, and later from those at
Salpetriere. Along with the English reformer William Turk, he originated the method of "moral management," using
gentle treatment and patience rather than physical abuse and chains on hospital patients.
Address to Humanity, Containing a Letter to Dr. Thomas Monro; a Receipt to Make a Lunatic, and Seize his Estate and a Sketch
of a True Smiling Hyena. William Belcher
The Strange Effects of Faith with Remarkable Prophecies. Joanna Southcott
1810 Madness: Exhibiting a Singular Case of Insanity, and a No Less Remarkable Difference in
Medical Opinion: Developing the Nature of Assailment, and the Manner of Working Events; with a Description of the Torture
Experienced by Bomb-Bursting, Lobster-Cracking, and Lengthening the Brain. John Halsam (ed.)
A Letter to Dr. R. D. Willis: to Which are Added, Copies of Three Other Letters: Published in the Hope of Rousing a Humane
Nation to the Consideration of the Miseries Arising from Private Madhouses: with a Preliminary Address to Lord Erskine. Anne
1813 The Second Book of
Wonders. Joanna Southcott.
1816 Early Life of William Cowper. by Wiliam Cowper.
1818 Bethlehem Hospital. by Urbane Metcalf.
Fiction or the Memories of Francis Barnett. 2 vols. by Francis Barnett.
1825 A Description of the Crimes and Horrors in the Interior of Warburton's Private Mad-House at Hoxton,
Commonly Called Whibmore House. by John Mitford.
1825 Part Second of the Crimes
and Horrors of the Interior of Warburton's Private Mad-Houses at Hoxton and Bethnal Green and of These Establishments in General
with Reasons for Their Total Abolition. by John Mitford.
on the Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Derangement. Founded on an Extensive Moral and Medical Practice in the Treatment
of Lunatics. Together With the Particulars of the Sensations and Ideas of a Gentleman During Mental Alternation, Written by
Himself During His Confinement. by Paul Slade Knight.
Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by John Tempest, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister at Law during Fourteen Months Solitary
Confinement under a False Imputation of Lunacy. by John Tempest
An Account of the Imprisonment and Sufferings of Robert Fuller, of Cambridge. Boston: The Author. Fuller,
1838 A Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by
a Gentleman, During a State of Mental Derangement; Designed to Explain the Causes and the Nature of Insanity, and to Expose
the Injudicious Conduct Pursued Towards Many Unfortunate Sufferers Under That Calamity. 2 vols. by John Percavel 1838 and
1840 (republished, with an introduction by Gregory Bateson, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1961).
1838 Scenes in a Mad House. Boston: Samuel N. Dickinson.
Derby, John Barton.
1840 In the 1840s, the Washingtonians, an organization with the central tenant
that 'social camaraderie was sufficient to sustain sobriety,' enlist recovering alcoholics as missionaries to individuals
with drinking disorders, thus pioneering the notion of service as a tool of self-help.
1840 First U.S. attempt to measure the extent of mental illness occurs with the
U.S. Census of 1840.
1841 The Madhouse
System. Richard Paternoster.
1841 Dorothea Dix begins her work on behalf of
people with disabilities incarcerated in jails and poorhouses.
“Scene in a Private Mad-House.” Asylum Journal. 1(1): 1. Anonymous.
by Elizabeth T. Stone, upon the Statements Made by H.B. Skinner, in the Pulpit of the Hamilton Chapel, on Sunday Afternoon,
18th of June 1843, in Reference to What She Had Stated Concerning His Being Chaplain in the Charlestown McLean Asylum:
and Also a Further Relation on Her Suffering While Confined in That Place for 16 months and 20 days. Boston: The Author.
1844 Founding of the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
At a meeting in 1844 in Philadelphia, 13 superintendents and organizers of insane asylums and hospitals formed the Association
of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII).
1845 Alleged Lunatics Friends Society, seen as the forerunner of present day advocacy groups.
This groups lasted until 1863.
1846 The Lily of the West: On Human
Nature, Education, the Mind, Insanity, with Ten Letters as a Sequel to the Alphabet; the Conquest of Man, Early Days; a Farewell
to My Native Home, the Song of the Chieftain's Daughter, Tree of Liberty, and the Beauties of Nature and Art, by G. Grimes,
an Inmate of the Lunatic Asylum of Tennessee. Nashville. Grimes, Green.
A Secret Worth Knowing: A Treatise on the Most Important Secret in the World: Simply to say, Insanity, by G. Grimes, an Inmate
of the Lunatic Asylum of Tennessee. Nashville: Nashville Union Grimes, Green.
1847 A Secret Worth Knowing: A Treatise on Insanity, the Only Work of the Kind in the United States or,
Perhaps in the Known World: Founded on General Observation and Truth, by G. Grimes, an Inmate of the Lunatic Asylum of Tennessee.
New York: W. H. Graham. Grimes, Green.
1847 Thirty-Two Years of the Life of an Adventurer. New York: The Author. Drake, John H.
1848 “Illustrations of Insanity Furnished by the
Letters and Writings of the Insane.” American Journal of Insanity. 4: 290-308. Anonymous.
1848 Samuel Gridley Howe told the Massachusetts legislature, "There are at least a thousand
persons of this class who not only contribute nothing to the common stock, but who are ravenous consumers, who are idle and
often mischievous, and who are dead weight upon the prosperity of the state."
Five Months in the New York State Lunatic Asylum, by an Inmate. Buffalo: L. Danforth. Anonymous.
1849 Mr. Dyce Sombre's Refutation of the Charge of Lunacy Brought Against Him in the Court of Chancer.
Paris. by Dvee Sombre.
1850 “The Ohio Lunatic Asylum.”
The Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology. 3: 456-90. Anonymous.
1851 Autobiography of the Rev. William Walford. London. by William Walford.
1851 The Opal Volume 1. New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,”
Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
1851 Dr.Samuel Cartwright,a prominent Louisiana
physician and one of the leading authorities in his time on the medical care of Negroes,identiﬁed two mental disorders
peculiar to slaves.Drapetomia,or the disease causing Negroes to run away.
1851 Dysaethesia Aethiopica was a mental illness described by Dr. Cartwright which proposed
a theory for the cause of laziness among slaves. Today, dysaethesia aethiopica is considered an example of scientific
1851 Astounding Disclosures! Three Years in a Mad House, by a Victim.
A True Account of the Barbarous, Inhuman and Cruel Treatment of Isaac H. Hunt, in the Maine Insane Hospital, in the Years
1844, '45, '46 and '47, by Drs. Isaac Ray, James Bates, and Their Assistants and Attendants. Skowhegan: The Author. Hunt,
1852 “A Letter from a Patient.” The Opal – A monthly
Periodical of the State Lunatic Asylum, Devoted to Usefulness. 2: 245-246. Anonymous.
1852 The Opal Volume 2. New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,”
Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
Disclosures! Three Years in a Mad House, by a Victim. Contains Also: A Short Account of Miss Elizabeth T. Stone in the McLean
Asylum at Somerville, Mass. and a Short Account of the Burning of the Maine Asylum, Dec. 4th, 1850. Skowhegan: The Author,.
Hunt, Isaac H. 1
1852 Startling Facts from the Census was published in the
American Journal of Insanity. It argued that slavery kept blacks well, because there was a higher incidence of insanity
in Blacks in the North than the South.
1852 Insanity Among the Colored Population
of the Free States. By Dr. Jarvis. Jarvis writes to "disabuse any readers mind" of the information released
in "startling facts from the census". Jarvis' investigation into the Census actually created what is now called
the "modern census" as he found the statistics were largely unreliable.
Passages from the History of a Wasted Life. Boston: Benj. B. Mussey.Middle-Aged Man [pseud.].
1853 Invention of the hypodermic syringe, its use to inject morphine to reduce pain rapidly became widespread
during the Civil War.
1853 Dorothea Dix is credited for the creation of the
first public mental hospital in Harrisburg Pennsylvania.
1853 The Opal Volume
3. New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,” Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
1854 The Opal Volume 4. New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited
by the “Patients,” Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
1854 “A Chapter from Real Life. By a Recovered Patient.” The Opal – A monthly Periodical
of the State Lunatic Asylum, Devoted to Usefulness. 4: 48-50. Anonymous.
1854 Letters of a Lunatic:
A Brief Exposition of My University Life During the Years 1853-1854. New York: The Author. Adler, George J.
1855 Scenes from the Life of a Sufferer: Being the Narrative of a Residence in Morningside Asylum.
Edinburgh. by Anonymous
1855 Two Years and Three Months in the New York Lunatic
Asylum at Utica. Syracuse: Published by the Author. Davis, Phebe B.
in the Asylum.” The Opal – A monthly Periodical of the State Lunatic Asylum, Devoted to Usefulness. 5: 4-6.
1855 Letters to the People on Health and Happiness. New York:
Harper and Brothers. Beecher, Catherine.
St. Elizabeth’s Psychiatric Hospital established as first Federal mental health facility.
1855 The Opal Volume 5. New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,”
Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
Opal Volume 6 New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,” Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
1857 The Opal Volume 7 New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients”,
Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
Knight cut the ribbon on the first institution for Undesirables in Connecticut stating, "Being consumers and not producers,
they are a great pecuniary burden in the state."
The Opal Volume 8 New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,” Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
1859 The Opal Volume 9 New York: Utica State Lunatic
Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,” Utica State Lunatic Asylum.
1860 Seven Months in the Kingston Lunatic Asylum, and What I Saw There. by Ann Pratt.
1860 The travels and experiences of Miss Phebe B. Davis,
of Barnard, Windsor County, VT, being a sequel to her two years and three months in the N.Y. state lunatic asylum at Utica,
N.Y. Davis, Phebe. B.
1861 Susan B. Anthony
& Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Could the dark secrets of those insane asylums be brought to light...we would be shocked to
know the countless number of rebellious wives, sisters and daughters that are thus annually sacrificed to false customs and
conventionalisms and barbarous laws made by men for women.
1861. The Opal Volume 10. New York: Utica State Lunatic Asylum. Edited by the “Patients,”
Utica State Lunatic Asylum. The journal is shut down in the fourth number.
1861 The American Godhead: or, the Constitution of the United States Cast Down by Northern Slavery,
or by the Power of Insane Hospitals. Boston: The Author. Stone, Elizabeth.
Statement of Mrs. Lydia B. Denny, Wife of Reuben S. Denny, of Boston, in Regard to Her Alleged Insanity. n.p. Denny,
1864 The Exposure on Board the Atlantic and Pacific Car of the Emancipation
for the Slaves of Old Columbia . . . or, Christianity and Calvinism Compared, with an Appeal to the Government to Emancipate
the Slaves of the Marriage of the Union. Chicago: Author. Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1864 The Monomaniac, or Shirley Hall Asylum. New York: James G. Gregory. Gilbert, William.
1865 Two Years in a Lunatic Asylum. London. by Mabel Etchell.
1865 Great Disclosure of Spiritual Wickedness!! In High Places with an Appeal to the Government
to Protect the Inalienable Rights of Married Women. Boston: Author. Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1866 Marital Power Exemplified in Mrs. Packard's Trial and
Self-Defense from the Charge of Insanity; or, Three Years Imprisonment for Religious Belief, by the Arbitrary Will of a Husband,
with an Appeal to the Government to so Change the Laws as to Afford Legal Protection to Married Women. Hartford, CT: Case,
Lockwood, Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1867 Life in
a Lunatic Asylum: An Autobiographical Sketch. London. by Anonymous.
1868 Mrs. Elizabeth Packard,
(1816-1897) one of North America's first ex-insane asylum inmate activists, confined from 1860-63 in Illinois State Hospital
for the Insane in Jacksonville, Illinois, published the first of several books and pamphlets in which she detailed her forced
commitment by her husband in the Jacksonville (Illinois) insane Asylum. Elizabeth Packard was locked up in a state insane
asylum in Illinois from 1860 - 1863 because she disagreed with some of her husband's religious views, had different ideas
than he did about how to raise their children, and also because she opposed slavery while he was in favor of it. For daring
to have such opinions, she spent three years confined as a madwoman.
1868 “Mrs. Olsen’s Narrative of her One Year’s Imprisonment at Jacksonville Insane
Asylum.” Appended to The Prisoner’s Hidden Life or Insane Asylums Unveiled. Elizabeth Packard.
Chicago: Author. Olsen, Sophie.
1868 Two years and four months in a
lunatic asylum: From August 20th, 1863 to December 20th, 1865. Saratoga Springs, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.
1868 The Prisoner’s Hidden Life; or,
Insane Asylums Unveiled. Chicago: Author. Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1868 Elizabeth Packard founds the Anti-Insane Asylum Society based on her experience of commitment in
an Illinois Asylum. Her husband committed her because her religious beliefs were different than her.
1869 The Life and Travels of Benjamin S. Snider: His Persecution, Fifteen Times a Prisoner.
Washington: The Author,. Snider, Benjamin S.
1870 Narrative of a Pilgrim and
Sojourner on Earth, from 1791 to the Present Year, 1870. by Louisa Perina Courtauld Clemens.
Lunatic Asylums: Their Use and Abuse. New York. Titus, Mrs. Ann H.
Behind Bars. Boston: Lee & Shepard. Lunt, Adeline T.P.
1872 My Outlawry,
A Tale of Madhouse Life. London. by Louisa Lowe
1872 Report of a Case
Heard in Queen's Bench, November 22nd, 1872, Charging the Commissioners in Lunacy with Concurring in the Improper Detention
of a Falsely-Alleged Lunatic and Wrongfully Tampering with her Correspondence. London. by Louisa Lowe.
1872 How an Old Woman Obtained Passive Writing and the Outcome Thereof. London.
by Louisa Lowe.
1872 A Nineteenth Century Adaptation of Old Inventions to
the Repression of New Thoughts and Personal Liberty. London. by Louisa Lowe.
Gagging in Madhouses as Practised by Government Servants in a Letter to the People, by one of the Gagged. London. by Louisa
1872 Clitoridectomies performed in association with women’s mental
1872 The Lunacy Laws and Trade in Lunacy in a Correspondence
with the Earl of Shaftesbury. London. by Louisa Lowe.
Modern Persecution; or Insane Asylums Unveiled. Hartford: Author. Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1874 The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) –
the first national organization composed of community-based groups – was founded and focused on the problems that alcohol
caused families and society.
1874 Ten Years and Ten Months in Lunatic Asylums
in Different States. Hoosick Falls: The Author,. Swan, Moses.
The North Carolina General Assembly appropriated $10,000 to build a "colored insane asylum".
1876 A Mad World and Its Inhabitants. New York: Appleton.
1876 Lunatic Asylums: and How I Became
an Inmate of One. Chicago: Ottaway and Colbert, Metcalf, Ada.
Am I a Lunatic? Or, Dr. Henry T. Helmbold's Exposure of his Personal Experience in the Lunatic Asylums of Europe and America.
New York: Helmbold, Henry.
1878 The History of My Orphanage, or the Outpourings
of an Alleged Lunatic. London. by Georgina Weldon.
1878 The Mystic Key; or
The Asylum Secret Unlocked. Hartford: Author. Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1879 “A Sketch of Psychiatry in Southern States. ”Presidential Address, American Medico-Psychological
Association. Baltimore. Powell, T. O.
Behind the Scenes; Or, Life in an Insane Asylum. Chicago: Culver. Smith, Lydia Adeline Jackson Button.
1879 Behind the Scene; or, Life in an Insane Asylum. Chicago:
Culver, Page, Hoyne and Co. Smith, Lydia.
Wundt established the first formal psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany where he introduced a
scientific approach to psychology and performed many experiments to measure peoples' reaction time. This event is considered
the birth of psychology.
1879 My Experience in a Lunatic Asylum, by a Sane Patient. London. by
Chalres Herman Merivale
1880 The Eastern Asylum for the Colored Insane was opened
with accommodations for four hundred and twenty patients.
A Blighted Life: A True Story. (orig. pub. 1880; reprinted, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1996). by Bulwer Rosina Lytton.
1881 At the 40th anniversary of the Medico-Psychological Association at University College, Daniel
Tuke, the president, paid respect to her 'who has a claim to the gratitude of mankind for having consecrated the best years
of her life to the fearless advocacy of the cause of the insane'.
1882 An Insight into an Insane Asylum. Louisville, KY: The Author. Camp, Joseph.
1882 How I Escaped the Mad Doctors. London. by Georgina Weldon.
1883 The Memorial Scrapbook. A Combination of Precedents. Boston: Pennell,
1883 Sir Francis Galton in England coins the term eugenics,
in his book Essays in Eugenics, to describe his pseudo-science of "improving the stock" of humanity. The eugenics
movement, taken up by Americans, leads to passage in the United States of laws to prevent people with various disabilities
from moving to this country, marrying, or having children. In many instances, it leads to the institutionalization and forced
sterilization of people with disabilities or poor people, including children. Eugenics campaigns against people of color and
immigrants led to passage of "Jim Crow" laws in the South and legislation restricting immigration by southern and
eastern Europeans, Asians, Africans, and Jews.
1883 A Checkered Life. Chicago:
S. P. Rounds. Joyce, John A.
1883 The Bastilles of England; or The Lunacy
Laws at Work. London. by Louisa Lowe.
1884 A Palace Prison; or, The Past and the
Present. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert Anonymous.
1884 Another Section
of the “M.S.B.” by L.C.P. A Boomerang for a Swarm of B.B.B.’s. Boston: Pennell, Lemira Clarissa.
1885 Prospectus of Hospital Revelations. How Opinions
Vary. Pennell, Lemira Clarissa.
1885 Twenty-Five Years
with the Insane. Detroit: John MacFarlane. Putnam, Daniel.
The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford. New York: Dodd, Mead. Rutherford, Mark.
1885 The Right
Spirit. Buffalo, NY: Courier. Cottier, Lizzie D.
established an asylum for the “colored insane”in Petersburg.
This Red Book is Partly a Reprint of What Was Published in 1883, and Later. And Earlier Letters from Prominent Men.
Instructions to Dr. Harlow, from Springfield, His Letters from the Hospitals, and Much Else. Boston: n.p.. Pennell,
1886 From Under the Cloud or, Personal Reminiscences of Insanity.
Cincinnati: Printed by Robert Clarke for the Author.Agnew, Anna.
Dix (1802-1887) an activist and reformist for improving the environments and conditions of lunatic asylums. She is credited
with the establishment of dozens of institutions.
Among the Insane.” North American Review. 144: 190-199. Brinkle, Andrianna P.
1887 The Life Story of Sarah Victor. Cleveland: Williams.
Victor, Sarah M.
1887 Ten Days in a Madhouse; or, Nellie Bly’s Experience on Blackwell’s
Island. Feigning Insanity in Order to Reveal Asylum Horrors. New York: Norman L. Munro. Bly, Nellie. (Elizabeth Cochrane).
1888 Hospital Revelations. Pennell, Lemira Clarissa.
1888 “Hospitals for the Insane. Viewed from the Standpoint of Personal Experience, by
a Recovered Patient.” Alienist and Neurologist. 9: 51-57. Rutz-Rees, Janet E.
1889 An Explanation to the Public as to Why Mrs. Lemira Clarissa Pennell Was Confined in the Insane
Hospital and the Portland Poor House. Augusta, Maine: n.p.. Pennell, Lemira Clarissa.
1890 New Horrors. Pennell, Lemira Clarissa.
Dr. Gottlieb performed partial lobotomies on six patients of a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland. He drilled holes into
their heads and extracted sections of their frontal lobes. One died after the operation, and another was found dead in a river
10 days after release.
1890 New York passes The State Care
Act that fosters state responsibility for mental health services.
1890 A Secret
Institution. New York: Bryant Publishing Co. Lathrop, Clarissa Caldwell.
1891 In Robert Burton’s synopsis of the causes of melancholy he lists god, devil,
1891 Madhouses of America.
Cohoes: New York. Trull, William L.
1892 American Psychological Association
1892 “The Yellow Wallpaper.” New England Magazine.
5(5) 647-56. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins.
1892 The Great Drama; or, the Millennial
Harbinger. Hartford: Author. Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware.
1893 Three Years in a Mad House. Chicago: Donohue, Henneberry Fleming, E. G.
1896 Dementia praecox is first diagnosed.
1896-01-01 00:00:00 -0400
1896 “The Confessions
of a Nervous Woman.” Post Graduate Monthly. Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 11: 364-368. Anonymous.
1897 Dr. T. O. Powell reported that the Alabama facility had about three hundred and ﬁfty
African-American patients. The facility maintained a “colony" of one hundred
African-American men about two
miles from the main facility.
1898 Transactions of the Antiseptic Club. New York: E. B.
Treat. Abrams, Albert.
1898 A Madman's Musings: Being a
Collection of Essays Written by a Patient During His Detention in a Private Madhouse. London. by Anonymous.
1899 Professor Hieronymous (trans. from 1895 Norwegian ed.). London. by Bertha Amalia Skram.
1899 Experience of a Criminal. by A. Telso.
Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams revolutionizes psychiatric theory and practice. He is the first to use the unconscious
to treat psychiatric illness in patients by using 'psychoanalysis' - free association and interpretation of dreams.
1900 In the 1900s the first institutions to treat addiction as a medical problem –
i.e. early treatment centers – are created.
Sigmund Freud presented his concepts of psychoanalysis in a publication entitled "The Interpretation of Dreams."
1901 Charles Woodruff explained intellectual superiority of northern European Christians
with essay on civilization & brain development -July, American Journal of Insanity.
1902 Inferno (trans. M. Sandbach). London. by August Strindberg.
1904 Clitoridectomies performed in association with women’s mental disorders.
Spiritual Adventures. London. by Arthur Symons.
1905 Sigmund Freud's Three
Essays on the Theory of Sexuality describes the stages of sexual development and explains the effects of infantile sexuality
on sexual dysfunction.
Sachs, author of A Treatise on the Nervous Diseases of Children recommends that masturbation in children be treated by cautery
to the spine and to the genitals. Cauterize is to burn, sear or destroy tissue.
The Lunacy Law of the World: Being that of Each of the Forty-Eight States and Territories of the United States, with an Examination
Thereof and Leading Cases Thereon; Together with that of the Six Great Powers of Europe—Great Britain, France, Italy,
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. Roanoke Rapids, NC. by John Armstrong Chaloner.
1906 Preventive legislation was needed to curb the increasing dependence on the
drugs in patient medicines; the Federal Food and Drug Act of 1906 removed narcotics from those products.
1907 The House of Quiet. by Arthur Christopher Benson.
1908 Clifford Beers publishes A Mind That Found Itself, detailing his experiences as a patient
in psychiatric hospitals. This work promotes the founding of the mental hygiene movement in the United States. Beers was one
of the biggest supporters of the eugenics movement in America, which also flourished in Germany during the early part of the
1909 The National Committee for Mental
Hygiene is founded by Clifford Beers in New York City. This was the forerunner of the National Mental Health Association
1909 A Man Remade: Or, Out of Delirium's Wonderland.
by Charles Roman.
1909 My Life as a Dissociated Personality. by B.C.A. (with
an introduction by Morton Prince, MD).
1909 The Maniac:
A Realistic Study of Madness from the Maniac's Point of View. by E. Thelmer.
“Autopsychology of the Manic-Depressive.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases. 37:
606-20. by Eva Charlotte Reid.
1910 The Autobiography of a Neurasthenic. by
M. A. Cleaves.
1910 Legally Dead: Experiences During Seventeen Weeks' Detention
in a Private Asylum. London. By Marcia Hamilcar
The cure for dementia praecox is said to be found in the restoration to consciousness of certain memories, and the illness
is renamed schizophrenia.
1911 The state of Maryland opens the its first psychiatric facility
for the "colored insane".
1911 Eugen Bleuler,
a Swiss psychiatrist, coines the term 'schizophrenia' in his book, Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias. He writes
that dementia praecox patients do not always develop dementia but instead, 'schizophrenia'.
Eight and One-Half Years in Hell. by Cyrus S. Turner.
1912 Autobiography of
Roosevelt's Adversary. by James Fullerton 1
1912 The Kallikak Family by Henry
H. Goddard was a best selling book. It proposed that disability was linked to immorality and alleged that both were tied to
genetics. It advanced the agenda of the eugenics movement. The Threat of the Feeble Minded (pamphlet) created a climate
of hysteria allowing for massive human rights abuses of people with disabilities, including institutionalization and forced
of a Religio-Maniac. Stratford-on-Avon, UK. by D. Davidson.
1912 The Kallikak Family by Henry
H. Goddard was a best selling book. It proposed that disability was linked to immorality and alleged that both were tied to
genetics. It advanced the agenda of the eugenics movement. The Threat of the Feeble Minded (pamphlet) created a climate
of hysteria allowing for massive human rights abuses of people with disabilities, including institutionalization and forced
1912 Thy Rod and Thy
Staff. London. by Arthor Christopher Benson.
1914 Psychoanalytic Review published 3 articles
on blacks about their inability to work a job connected to mental disorders.
Who's Looney Now? by John Armstrong Chaloner.
1914 The Harrison Act
of was the first effort toward making it impossible for people with addictions to legally obtain drugs.
1915 My Last Drink. by Joseph H. Francis.
Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act became law.
1917 Physiologic Shock Treatments:
Malaria-Induced Fever. The Austrian psychiatrist Julius von Wagner-Jauregg uses malaria-induced fever to cause remission in
patients with slight or incomplete paralysis (also called dementia paralytica).
Mary MacLane, A Diary of Human Days. by Mary MacLane
1917 Alfred Adler establishes
the school of individual psychology and becomes the first psychoanalyst to challenge Freud. He coins the terms 'lifestyle'
and 'inferiority complex' in his book, Study of Organ Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensations.
1918 The Smith-Sears Veterans Rehabilitation Act provided for the promotion of vocational rehabilitation
and return to civil employment of disabled persons discharged from U.S. military.
There are now 22 catagories of mental illness.
1919 Rusk State Penitentiary
in Texas was turned into a hospital for the “Negro insane”.
“Confessions of an Agoraphobic Victim.” American Journal of Psychology. 30: 295-299. by VIncent.
1919 George Fox: An Autobiography. by George Fox
1920 The story of Opal – the journal of an understanding heart. The Atlantic Monthly Press. Opal
1920 The Smith-Fess Vocational Rehabilitation
Act provided for the promotion of vocational rehabilitation of persons disabled in industry.
1920 A Thousand Faces. by Florence S.Thompson and George W. Galvin.
1920 The United States Office of Vocational Rehabilitation was established.
1920 The 18th Amendment, ratified in 1920, prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating
1921 The U.S. Veterans Bureau was established
(later known as the Department of Veterans Affairs).
1921 The Association of Medical Superintendents
of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), becomes the American Psychiatric Association.
The Experiences of an Asylum Patient. London. by Rachel Grant-Smith.
1922 Narcotic Drug Import
and Export Act also called the Jones-Miller Act. Increased penalties and further restricted the import and export of opium
1923 Daughters of Fire: Sylvia—Emilie—Octavie (trans.
from 1862 French ed.). London. by Gerard Labrunie [Gerard De Nerval].
From Harrow School to Herrison House Asylum. London. by Harald Hewitt.
1924 The Commonwealth of Virginia passed a state law that allowed for sterilization (without consent)
of individuals found to be "feebleminded, insane, depressed, mentally handicapped, epileptic and other." Alcoholics,
criminals and drug addicts were also sterilized.
Heroin Act made the manufacture and possession of heroin illegal
in an Edinburgh Asylum. Edinburgh. William Simpson.
performed in association with women’s mental disorders.
1925 The Confession
of a Fool (trans. Ellie Scheussner). by August Strindberg.
Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) dies. He is seen as being the founder of modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology
and psychiatric genetics.
1926 The Traitor—Being the Untampered with,
Unrevised Account of the Trial and All that Led to it. by Harry K. Thaw
Bureau of Prohibition Created by an act of the same name. Replaced the Bureau of Internal Revenue with a new bureau under
the Dept. of Treasury. This is the first organization responsible solely for the enforcement of drug and alcohol laws.
1927 On May 2, 1927 the U.S. Supreme Court, in Buck v. Bell (Carrie Buck, AKA
Carrie Buck Detamore), rules that the forced sterilization of people with disabilities is not a violation of their constitutional
rights. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate
offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing
their kind….Three generations of imbeciles are enough." Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes equated sterilization to
vaccination. Nationally, twenty-seven states began wholesale sterilization of "undesirables." The decision removes
the last restraints for eugenicists; advocating that people with disabilities be prohibited from having children. By the 1970s,
some 60,000 disabled people are sterilized without consent. This included people identified as having "mental illness."
1927 Julius von Wagner-Jauregg using malaria-induced fever becomes the first psychiatrist to win the
1927 Reluctantly Told. by Jane Hillyer.
1927 The Locomotive God. by W. E. Leonard.
1927 Physiological Shock Treatment: Insulin Coma and Convulsions are used as a treatment for
the first time.
1928 Exposure of the Asylum System. by M. J. Nolan
1928 Sanity for Sale: The Story of the Rise and Fall of William B. Ellis, by Himself.
by William B. Ellis.
1929 Sanity for Sale: The Story of American Life Since
the Civil War. by William B. Ellis.
1929 Pick Up the Pieces. b Emerson D.
Owens. [North 3-1].
1929 Reminiscences of a Stay in a Mental Hospital. London. by Mary Riggall.
1929 The Layman Looks at Doctors. by S.W. Pierce and J. T. (pseudonym).
1929 When—A Record of Transition. J. L. Pole.
“Wondering. The Impressions of an Inmate.” Atlantic Monthly. 145: 669. by Anonymous.
1930 The Shutter of Snow. E. H. Coleman.
Federal Bureau of Narcotics replaced the Bureau of Prohibition and moved the enforcement of drug laws from the Dept. of Treasury
to the Dept. of Justice. Its first commissioner, the infamous Harry Anslinger, began actions to control cannabis in addition
to opium and coca.
1930 The U.S. Public Health Service
establishes the Narcotics Division, later named the Division of Mental Hygiene.
1930 Confessions: A Study in Pathology. by Arthur Symons.
1931 Guilty but Insane: A Broadmoor Autobiography. London. by Wannack (pseudonym).
The International Foundation for Mental Health Hygiene is founded by Clifford Beers.
1931 The Recovery of Myself: A Patient’s Experience in a Hospital for Mental Illness. by Marian
1931 Sketches in the Life of John Clare (written
by himself, first published with an introduction, notes and additions, by Edmund Blunden). London. b John Clare.
1931 Sane in Asylum Walls. London. by James Scott.
The Disabled American Veterans was chartered by Congress to represent disabled veterans in their dealings with the federal
1932 The Disabled American Veterans was chartered by Congress
to represent disabled veterans in their dealings with the federal government.
Uniform State Narcotic Act encouraged states to pass uniform state laws matching the federal Narcotic Drug Import and Export
Act. Suggested prohibiting cannabis use at the state level. By 1937 every state had passed laws prohibiting cannabis use.
1932 Behind the Door of Delusion. by Inmate Ward Eight [Marion Woodson].
1932 I Lost My Memory--The Case as the Patient Saw It. London. by Anonymous.
1933 Mania. by Lawrence M. Jayson.
1933 The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment, which meant that states once again had the right
to enact laws regulating the sale and use of alcoholic beverages.
and Life (trans. from 1855 French ed.). London. by Gerard Labrunie [Gerard De Nerval].
1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the first physically disabled person ever to be elected as a head of government,
is sworn into office as president of the United States.
Two Lives. by W. E. Leonard.
1934 Physiologic Shock Treatment:
Metrazol Convulsions are first used.
1934 Magpie: The Autobiography of a Nymph
Errant. by Lois Vidal.
1935 Sigmund Freud states in his "Letter to an
American Mother" that, "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no
degradation; it cannot be classified as an illness."
1935 The Social Security
Act was passed. This established federally funded old-age benefits and funds to states for assistance to blind individuals
and disabled children. The Act extended existing vocational rehabilitation programs.
The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. by Charlotte Perkins Gilman.
My First Life; a Biography, by Brenda Dean Paul, Written By Herself. London. by Brenda Dean Paul.
1935 Bill W. and Dr. Bob found the self-help society known as Alcoholics Anonymous on June 10,
1935 Man the Unknown, written by Nobel Prize winning Dr. Alexis Carrel,
suggested the removal of criminals and the mentally ill by euthanasia, using institutions equipped with suitable gases.
1935 The Committee for the Study of Sex Variants is formed.
Asylum. by William Seabrook.
1935 New Armor for Old. by
William O'Sullivan Molony.
1936 Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky by Vaslav Nijinsky,
(ed. Joan Accocella). (republished in 1999).
Lobotomy was performed by the Portuguese physician and neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz. His method involved drilling
holes in patients' heads and destroying the tissue connecting the frontal lobes by injecting alcohol into them.
1936 The Exploration of the Inner World. Anton T. Boisen.
1937 Marihuana Tax Act.Made it federally illegal to buy, sell, barter, or give away cannabis
without paying a transfer tax. This is the first federal law regulating the possession and sale of cannabis. Declared unconstitutional
in 1969 in U.S. vs Timothy Leary.
1937 Chronicles of Interdict No. 7807. by
1937 Searchlight, an Autobiography. by Augusta Catherine Fischer.
1937 J. Edgar Hoover declares “War on the Sex Criminal!”
1937 Dear Theo: The Autobiography of Vincent Van Gogh (ed. Irving Stone). by Vincent Van Gogh.
1937 Recovery, Inc. is a self-help mental health program based on the ground breaking
work of our founder a neuropsychiatrist, the late Abraham A. Low, M.D.
A Patient's Memoirs. “The Rocket Buster." by G. C. Wegefarth.
1937 A Mind Restored:
The Story of Jim Curran. by Elsa Krauch.
1937 A Mind Mislaid. by Henry
1937 1935 -1936. by William Cary Sanger.
1938 “They Said I was Mad.” The Forum and Century. 100: 231-237. by Anonymous.
1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act revised and expanded
the Pure Food and Drug Act to require more extensive labelling and safety testing of food products. Introduced safety standards
and required that new drugs be shown to be safe before marketing.
Physiological Shock Treatment: electric shock therapy (EST), currently known as electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) is
first used by Ugo Cerletti.
1938 The Witnesses. London. by Thomas Barcley Hennell.
1939 The Insanity Racket: A Story of One of the Worst Hell Holes in This Country. by Luther
1939 The Capital's Siberia. by James Duffy.
1939 World War II begins and Hitler decrees “mercy killings” that patients with
incurable medical illnesses be killed because they are 'biologically unfit.' Approximately 270,000 patients with mental illness
are killed by physicians and medical personnel complying with the Nazi doctrine of racial purity. The Nazi euthanasia
program was code-named Aktion T4 and was instituted to eliminate "life unworthy of life."
1940 Borderland Minds. by Margaret Isabel Wilson
They Call Them Camisoles. by W. Wilson.
1940 Selective Service Medical Circular
No. 1 recommends that doctors screen out homosexuals from military draftees.
1940 908 patients were transferred from an institution for retarded and chronically ill patients in
Schoenbrunn, Germany to the euthanasia installation at Eglfing-Haar to be gassed. A monument to the victims stands in the
courtyard at Schoenbrunn.
1940 Criminal Complaints with
Probable Causes (A True Account). Bound, circular letter. by Percy L. King
1940 “Insulin and I.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 10: 810-814.
1940 The Book of Margery Kempe (edited and introduced
by Sanford Brown Meech and Hope Emily Allen). Oxford. by Margery Kempe.
Asylum Piece. by Helen Woods Edmonds.
1940 Newdigate Owensby promotes pharmacological
shock treatment for the treatment of homosexuality.
The Bridge of Eternity. by Looney Lee Gary (pseudonym).
Critical Examination of the Concept of Bisexuality”
on a Benign Psychosis.” Psychiatry. 3: 527-34. by Elaine F. Kinder.
Spinner's Lake. London. by Maude Harrison.
1941 The Triumph of Personal Thought
and How I Became a Mason. by Jacob Alexson.
Hitler suspended the Aktion T4 program that killed nearly one hundred thousand people. Euthanasia continued through the use
of drugs and starvation instead of gassings.
California Justice: Is This Supposed to Be a Democracy? by Arthur Penn.
1941 “Minds in the Mending.” Atlantic Monthly. 168: 330-34. Olivia
1942 The Eclipse of a Mind. by Alonzo Graves.
No Hiding Place: An Autobiography. by William Seabrook.
1943 Prelude to Sanity.
1943 Autobiography. and A Ray of Darkness.
(no date) Oxford. by Margiad Evans.
1943 Clifford Beers
1944 Brainstorm. by Carlton Brown.
1944 The Book of Margery Kempe. Rendered into modern English by W. Butler-Bowdon. by Margery Kempe.
1944 The Lost Weekend. by C. Jackson.
A Man Against Time: An Heroic Dream. by W. E. Leonard.
1946 The Snake Pit.
by Mary Jane Ward.
1946 First They Came
First they came for the Communists,
and I didn't speak up, because I wasn't a Communist.
Then they came for the sick, the so-called incurables, and I didn't
speak up, because I wasn't mentally ill.
Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up, because I wasn't a Jew.
Then they came for me, and by that time there was no one left to speak up for me.
Modern translation of poem by Martin
1946 The National Mental Health Foundation is founded by conscientious
objectors who served as attendants at state mental institutions during World War II. It works to expose the abusive conditions
at these facilities and becomes an early impetus in the push for deinstitutionalization.
1946 Out of the Dark Ages.” Woman’s Home Companion. 34-35,
91-92; August. by Mary Jane Ward.
1946 Anna Freud, the
youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud, publishes The Psychoanalytic Treatment of Children, which introduces basic concepts in
the theory and practice of child psychoanalysis.
Abrupt Self. by David Martens.
1946 President Truman signs the National Mental
Health Act, creating for the first time in US history a significant amount of funding for psychiatric education and research
and leading to the creation of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
Walter Freeman first performs a transorbital lobotomy on a live patient. This new form of psychosurgery was intended for use
in State mental hospitals that often did not have the facilities for anesthesia, so Freeman suggested using electroconvulsive
therapy to render the patient unconscious.(Jack, 2005).
1946 “My Way
Back to Sanity.” Ladies Home Journal. 63(10): 54-55, 242-250. by Jane Elliot.
1946 Autobiography of David ----(ed. Ernest Raymond).
London. by David (pseudonym).
1947 These are my Sisters: An “Insandectomy.” by Lara Jefferson.
1947 The Kingdom of the Lost. London. by John Andrerw Howard Ogdon.
1947 Between Us and the Dark. by Lenore McCall.
The Nuremberg Trials convicted a number of psychiatrists who held key positions in Nazi regimes.
1947 If a Man Be Mad. by H. Maine.
Inside the Asylum. London. by John Vincent.
1948 The Stubborn Wood. by Emily
1948 The combined specialty of 'neuropsychiatry' was divided
into 'neurology,' dealing with organic or physical diseases of the brain, and 'psychiatry' dealing with emotional and behavioral
1948 The combined specialty
of 'neuropsychiatry' was divided into 'neurology,' dealing with organic or physical diseases of the brain, and 'psychiatry'
dealing with emotional and behavioral problems.
Are Not Alone (WANA), a mental patients' self-help group, is organized in New York City by people who were incarcerated at
Rockland State Hospital. Their goal was to help others make the difficult transition from hospital to community.
1948 Views of a Nearsighted Cannoneer. by Seymour Krim.
Fountain House opens in New York City. This is the first of the clubhouse model, influenced by WANA. (We are not alone).
1949 The World Next Door. by Fritz Peters.
D. O. Cauldwell first describes “psychopathic transsexualism”. 1
A Doctor Regrets, Being the First Part of "A Publisher Presents Himself." London. by Donald McIntosh Johnson.
1949 The Australian psychiatrist John Cade shows that lithium quieted “manic
1949 Antonio Egas Muniz wins the Nobel
Prize for Medicine for his work on the lobotomy.
Third Strike. by Jerry Gray.
1950 The Other Side of the Bottle.
by Dwight Anderson (with Page Cooper).
1950 Beginning of Senator Joseph Macarthy’s
hearings on communists in the government; purges of homosexuals from government.
Social Security Amendments established a federal-state program to aid permanently and totally disabled persons.
1950 In Childhood and Society, Erik Erikson restates Freud's concepts of infantile sexuality
and develops the concepts of 'adult identity,' and 'identity crisis.'
Mary Switzer was appointed the Director of the U.S. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation where she emphasized independent living
as a quality of life issue.
1951 The Homosexual in America
by Edward Sagarin under the pseudonym Donald Webster Cory.
1951 Fight against
Fears. by Lucy Freeman.
1951 The Boggs Act imposed mandatory minimum sentences for those convicted
of violating the Narcotic Drug Import and Export Act or the Marihuana Tax Act. These minimums were mostly repealed in 1970.
1951 Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl (trans. from 1950 French ed.). edited by Marguerite Sechehaye.
1951 Mattachine Society founded in Los Angeles.
1952 The American Psychiatric Association publishes the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders. There are 112 mental disorders in its initial, 1952 edition.
1952 The Cardboard Giants. by Pau Hackett.
American Psychiatric Association publishes the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
1952 “Recovery from a Long Neurosis.” Psychiatry 15: 161-177. by Anonymous (Mrs.
1952 Bars and Barricades, Being the Second Part
of "A Publisher Presents Himself." London. by Donald McIntosh Johnson.
Jorgensen undergoes sex reassignment surgery in Denmark to become Christine Jorgensen,
Wisdom, Madness and Folly: The Philosophy of a Lunatic. by John Custance (pseudonym).
The French psychiatrists Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker report that chlorpromazine (Thorazine ®) calms hospitalized chronic
schizophrenic patients without causing clinically significant depression. The drug is called 'hibernotherapie' because patients
became quiet, like animals in hibernation.
1952 Homosexuality is mentally
diagnosed as Sexual Deviation Personality Disorder.
How Thin the Veil: A Newspaperman's Story of His Own Mental Crackup and Recovery. by Jack Kerkoff.
1953 Hell's Cauldron. by Gerald Erasmus Wilcox [Thomas G. E. Wilkes].
And Lo, the Star. by Margaret Atkins McGarr.
1953 To Hell and Back. The Story
of an Alcoholic. by James E. Hummal [James H. Ellis].
BF Skinner publishes Science and Human Behavior, describing his theory of operant conditioning, an important concept in the
development of behavior therapy.
1954 First psychiatric drugs are created
contributing to the begining of deinstitutionalization and a host of problems. Chlorpomazine (Thorazine) receives FDA
1954 I’ll Cry Tomorrow. by Lillian Roth
with Mike Connolly and Gerald Frank.
This is Norman Brokenshire—An Unvarnished Self-Portrait. by Normen Brokenshire.
1954 Long Journey; a Verbatim Report of a Case of Severe Psychosexual Infantilism. by Harold Kenneth
1954 The U.S. Supreme Court in
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruled that separate schools for black and white children are unequal and unconstitutional.
This pivotal decision became a catalyst for the Civil Rights Movement.
1954 Justice and Justices.
by Basil Hubbard Pollitt.
1954 Episode—A Record of Five Hundred Lost
Days. by Peter W. Denzer.
1954 Mary Switzer, Director of the U.S. Office of Vocational
Rehabilitation, authorized funds for more than 100 university-based rehabilitation-related programs.
1954 Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments were passed that authorized federal grants to expand programs
available to people with physical disabilities.
1954 Adventure into the Unconscious.
London. by John Custance (pseudonym).
1955 Voices Calling. by
1955 Fear Strikes Out: The Jim Piersall Story.
by James Piersall ans Albert Hirshberg.
1955 Resident patients in state and
county hospitals in the U.S. peaks at around 550,000.
The Texas hospital for the “Negro insane achieved notoriety when, on April 16, 1955, a group of African- American prisoners
in the maximum-security unit rebelled and took over the hospital for ﬁve hours. The rebellion was led by nineteen-year-old
Ben Riley, who articulated inmate demands for better counseling, organized exercise periods, an end to prisoner beatings,
and that all inmates have the same rights enjoyed by the white inmates regarding meals, bathing and freedom of movement.
1955 Congress authorizes the Mental Health Study Act.
The Mind in Chains (Autobiography of a Schizophrenic). William L. Moore.
Daughters of Bilitis founded in San Francisco.
1955 Ward N-1. by John White.
1955 Deinstitutionalization began with the US inpatient census peaking with
550,000 people institutionalized.
1956 Evelyn Hooker begins
publishing research on the psychology of non-clinical homosexuals, based on work begun in the 1940s
1956 Congress passes the Social Security Amendments of 1956, which creates a Social Security Disability
Insurance (SSDI) program for disabled workers aged 50 to 64.
Schizophrenia, 1677: A Psychiatric Study of an Illustrated Autobiographical Record of Demoniacal Possession. by Christoph
Haizmann (eds. Ida Macalpine and Richard Hunter).
1956 Narcotics Control
Act also known as the Daniels Act. Further increased penalties and mandatory minimums for violations of existing drug laws.
1956 A Tale Told by a Lunatic. Dumfries. by Isabella Millar Norrison.
The American Medical Association formally recognizes alcoholism as a disease and the insurance industry begins to underwrite
1957 No Hiding Place. by Beth Day.
Wolfenden Commission recommends decriminalization of homosexuality.
1957 Too Much, Too Soon.
by Dianna Barrymore.
1957 The first pharmacologic treatment for depression
is reported with the work of Kuhn on the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and of Loomer, Saunders and Kline on the monoamine
oxidase (MAO) inhibitor iproniazid.
1957 The God Within. by Christina M. Valentine.
1957 The Plague of Psychiatry. by D. G. Simpson.
Writings. by Gerard de. Nerval. (trans. Geoffrey Wagner).
1958 The Inside
of the Cup. London. by A. Wingfield.
1958 Mine Enemy Grows Older. by Alexander King.
1958 Social Security Amendments of 1958 extended Social Security Disability Insurance benefits
to dependents of disabled workers.
1958 A Lawyer's Story In and Out of the
World of Insanity. by Basil Hubbard Pollitt.
a Lamb. London. by Ella Hales (pseudonym).
1958 Rehabilitation Gazette (formerly known as the
Toomeyville Gazette), edited by Gini Laurie, was a grassroots publication which became an early voice for disability rights,
independent living and cross-disability organizing. It featured articles by writers with disabilities
Operators and Things: The Inner Life of a Schizophrenic. London. by Barbara O'Brien (pseudonym).
1958 The Lost Days of My life. London. by Jane Simpson.
Breakdown. by Robert G. Dahl.
1959 Light Beyond Shadows:
A Minister and Mental Health. by Robert Frederick West.
1959 My Fight for
Sanity. London. by Judith Kruger.
1959 The Taste of Ashes—An Autobiography.
by Bill Stern and Oscar Fraley.
1959 Cynicism and Realism
of a Psychotic. by John L. Schmacher.
1959 Prodigal Shepherd. by Father Ralph
1960 Out of the Depths. by Anton T. Boisen.
A study by E. Morton Jellinek proposed the earliest version of the modern disease theory of alcoholism. American Medical
Association recognizes Alcoholism as a disease in the 1960s
I Can't Forget. by Eloise Davenport.
1960 Scientists at the American pharmaceutical
company Hoffmann-LaRoche develop the benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide (Librium ®)
A study by E. Morton Jellinek proposed the earliest version of the modern disease theory of alcoholism. American
Medical Association recognizes Alcholism as a disease in the 1960s
Freund uses pharmacological aversion therapy to cure homosexuality.
with Schizophrenia.” Canadian Medical Association Journal, 82, 218-222. by Norma McDonald.
1960 To Bedlam & Part Way Back. by Anne Sexton.
In a Forest Dark. by Harry Feldman.
1960 Since 1960 more than 90 percent of
state psychiatric hospital beds have been eliminated.
The Harvard Psylocibin Project conducted by Leary, T. and Alpert, R. concludes in 1962.
Social Security Amendments of 1960 eliminated the restriction that disabled workers receiving Social Security Disability Insurance
benefits must be 50 or older.
1961 The Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health's
1961 Action for Mental Health Study was a result of the Mental Health Study Act (1955).
Sweetheart, I Have Been to School. by Mary Noone (pseudonym).
1961 The Ha-Ha.
by Jennifer Dawson.
1961 Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental
patients and other inmates. New York: Anchor Books. Goffman, E.
Shock Treatment. by Winfred Van Atta.
1961 Faces in the Water. by Janet Frame.
1961 In the Forests of the Night. London. by S. Martel.
Self and Others. Pelican Books. Laing, R.D.
1961 Pencil Shavings—Memoirs.
Cambridge. by Olive Higgins Prouty.
1961 The Myth of Mental Illness by Thomas Szasz
1962 Mental Hospital. by Morton M. Hunt.
The World is a Wedding. by Bernard Kops.
1962 Edward Roberts sued to gain admission to the University
of California. (James Meredith sued to become the first black person to attend the University of Mississippi.) Edward V. Roberts
becomes the first severely disabled student at the University of California at Berkeley
1962 Nothing to Lose. London. by Clare Marc Wallace.
Battered Child Syndrome recognized by middle class, but recognized in lower class. Poor children rescued from bad, incompetent
1963 No Man Stands Alone—The True Story of Barney Ross. by
1963 Ola Mae Quarterman-Clemons was only 18
years old when she refused to sit on the back of the bus in that same town, and spent the next thirty days in jail.
1963 President Kennedy signs the Mental Health Centers Act to substitute comprehensive community care
for custodial institutional care.
1963 And Always Tomorrow. by Sarah E. Lorenz.
1963 President John Kennedy, in an address to Congress, calls for a reduction, "over
a number of years and by hundreds of thousands, (in the number) of persons confined" to residential institutions, and
he asks that methods be found "to retain in and return to the community the mentally ill and mentally retarded, and there
to restore and revitalize their lives through better health programs and strengthened educational and rehabilitation services."
President Kennedy signs the Community Mental Health Centers Act to substitute comprehensive community care for custodial institutional
care. Though not labeled such at the time, this is a call for deinstitutionalization and increased community services.
1963 Congress passes the Mental Retardation Facilities
and Community Health Centers Construction Act, authorizing federal grants for the construction of public and private nonprofit
community mental health centers.
1963 Scientists at the American pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-LaRoche
develop the benzodiazepines diazepam (Valium ®)
1963 I Was a Mental Statistic. by Edward
1963 The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual has grown to 168 mental disorders in the DSM-II from the 112 mental disorders in its initial, 1952 edition.
1963 'Deinstitutionalization' is mandated by the Community
Mental Health Centers Act.
Bell Jar. by Sylvia Plath.
1964 Chastise Me with Scorpions.
by Laura Rhodes and Lucy Freeman.
1964 Civil Rights Act signed by President
Lyndon Johnson prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, ethnicity, national origin, and creed -- later, gender
was added as a protected class.
1964 23 unmarried mothers
per 1000 in mental hospitals. reason: pregnant.
1964 Diary of a Paranoiac.
by Edwin Mumford.
1964 The Divided Self: The Healing of a Nervous Disorder. London. by Wlater
Steward Spencer [W. S. Stewart].
1964 God Gets in the Way of a Sailor. by
H. G. Thach.
1964 M. P. Feldman and M. K. MacCulloch report on the use of electric shock aversion
therapy in the treatment of homosexuality.
1964 I Never Promised You a Rose Garden.
by Joanne Greenberg [Hannah Green].
1964 Truth Forever on the Scaffold: I Tried to Help My Country.
by James Ross.
1964 Sanity, Madness and the Family. R.D. Laing & Aaron
1964 The Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health was issued and it documented
that smoking cigarettes caused cancer and other serious diseases.
Report on the Accident Inside My Skull. by E. Hodgins.
1964 Beyond All Reason. London. by Morag
1964 The White Shirts. by E. Field.
1964 The Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health was issued and it documented
that smoking cigarettes caused cancer and other serious diseases.
of a Schizophrenic Nurse. London. by Clare Marc Wallace.
1965 Memoirs of an Amnesiac. by Oscar
1965 In Search of Sanity: The Journal of a Schizophrenic. by Gregory
1965 All the Hairs on My Head Hurt. by Dressler La Marr [Jinxy R.
1965 Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments of 1965 were
passed authorizing federal funds for expansion of existing vocational rehabilitation programs.
Madness and Civilization by Michel Foucault.
1965 Bureau of Drug Abuse Control
formed under the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Responsible for enforcing the Drug Abuse Control Amendment.
1965 Spy Wife. by B. W. Powers and W. Diehl.
Medicare and Medicaid were established through passage of the Social Security Amendments of 1965, providing federally subsidized
health care to disabled and elderly Americans covered by the Social Security program. These amendments changed the definition
of disability under Social Security Disability Insurance program from "of long continued and indefinite duration"
to "expected to last for not less than 12 months."
Drug Abuse Control Amendment regulated, for the first time, the sale and possession of stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens.
It restricted research into psychoactives such as LSD by requiring FDA approval.
Ward Seven: An Autobiographical Novel. by Valeriy Tarsis. (trans. from 1965 Russian ed.).
1965 Washington Mattachine Society adopts a resolution declaring that “homosexuality is not
1966 Mishaps, Perhaps. by C. Solomon.
1966 Dr. Robert Morgan: "In summary, even one or two ECT treatments risk limbic damage
in the brain leading to retarded speed, coordination, handwriting, concentration, attention span, memory, response flexibility,
retention, and re-education. On the psychological side, fear of ECT has produced stress ulcers, renal disease, confusion,
amnesic withdrawal, and resistance to re-educative or psychological therapy. The research thus indicated that ECT was a slower-acting
lobotomy with the added complications of shock-induced terror."
Woman in Two Worlds; a Personal Story of Psychological Experience. by Wanda Martin.
1966 Crazy. by Jane Doe (pseudonym).
1967 The Politics
of Experience & The Bird of Paradise. Penguin Books. Laing, R.D.
The American Woman and Alcohol. by P. Kent.
1967 Five Years in Mental Hospitals:
An Autobiographical Essay. by Arthur Wellon.
1967 By Reason
of Insanity. by John Balt.
1968 Born To Trouble: Portrait of a Psychopath.
by R. Lloyd.
1968 Homophile activists protest against Dr. Charles Socarides
at the American Medical Association meeting in San Francisco.
My Experience with Mental Illness. by Hellen Moeller.
1968 Half a Lifetime. by Alton Brea.
1968 Bureau of Narcotics & Dangerous Drugs is created
by executive order, under the Department. of Justice, by merging the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and the Bureau of Drug Abuse
1968 DSM-II reclassifies the sexual deviations as a separate category
of personality disorders.
1968 The Unimportance
of Being Oscar. by Oscar Levant,
1968 Never Come Early. by Joseph J. Partyka
1968 More Mishaps. by C. Solomon.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases describes how they attempted to reduce the aggressive behavior of a thirty-one year
old schizophrenic woman by shocking her with a cattle prod whenever she made accusation of being persecuted and abused; made
verbal threats, or committed aggressive acts.
1969 Aftershock. by Ellen Wolfe.
1969 Insane Liberation Front (ILF) is organized by Howie
The Harp (homeless advocate), Dorothy Weiner (union organizer) and Tom Wittick (political activist/organizer) in Portland,
Oregon. It is the first known, modern, organized, self-help, advocacy, ex-patient group that was dedicated to liberation
1969 My Testimony. by Anatoly Marchenko
1969 Dr. Herbert Modlin, “managed” a group of paranoid women back to feminine health;
he helped them re-establish their relationships with their husbands. He decided that his paranoid ‘patients needed strong
male control, both within their marriages and within the hospital.
1969 Fear No Evil. by John
1969 National Institute of Mental Health Task Force on Homosexuality,
headed by Evelyn Hooker, completes its Final Report; publication delayed until 1972.
The Stonewall Inn riots in New York’s Greenwich Village ignites a radical gay rights movement.
1969 The Prison of My Mind. by Barbara Fields Benziger.
1970 Pedagogy of the Oppressed. by Paulo Friere
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act consolidated drug laws and strengthened law enforcement; it also authorized
the Controlled Substances Act classifying drugs based on medical value, harmfulness, and potential for abuse or addiction.
1970 First Christopher Street Liberation Day March in New York City commemorating
the Stonewall riots.
1970 Power/knowledge: Selected interviews
and other writings 1972-1977. Ed. C. Gordon. New York: Pantheon Books. Foucault, M.
Psychiatry and Anti-Psychiatry. David Cooper
1970 Sojourn in a Palace for Peculiars.
by Marty Roberts.
1970 The Other Caroline. by Mary Jane Ward.
1970 By 1970 the woman’s movement, gay rights movement and the disabilities rights movement
1970 Edward Roberts formed a group on campus called the Rolling Quads
and one year after that, Ed and his associates established the nation’s first Center for Independent Living (CIL).
15 years after being told he was “too disabled to work”, Ed was appointed as the head of Vocational Rehabilitation
for California in, and established 9 CILs in the state in 1975. Today there are over 300 CILs nationwide.
Ed is known as the father of the independent living movement.
1970 Gay rights
activists storm panels on homosexuality at the American Psychiatric Association (APA) annual convention in San Francisco.
1970 Mental. UK. by Robert Quentin Nelson.
The Food and Drug Administration approves lithium to treat people diagnosed with manic-depression.
1970 Beginning in the 1970s, The Mental Patients Union (MPU) and Community Organisation for
Psychiatric Emergencies (COPE) established, evolving eventually into the Campaign Against Psychiatric Oppression (CAPO).
1970 The Controlled Substance Act replaced the Drug Abuse Control Amendment. Organized federally
regulated drugs (including opiates, coca, cannabis, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens) into five schedules with varying
restrictions and penalties.
1971 The initial National Household Survey on
Drug Abuse is completed.
1971 President Nixon identified drug abuse as "public
enemy number one in the United States" and launched the war on drugs and crime.
Emotions Anonymous, founded in St. Paul, Minnesota.
1971 Bird's Nest Soup.
by Hanna Greally.
1971 Beneath the Underdog, His World as Composed by Mingus. by C. Mingus
(editor N. King).
1971 The National Center for Law and
the Handicapped was founded at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. It became the first legal advocacy center for people
with disabilities in the U. S.
1971 The U.S. District Court for the Middle District
of Alabama hands down its first decision in Wyatt v. Stickney, ruling that people in residential state schools and institutions
have a constitutional right "to receive such individual treatment as (would) give them a realistic opportunity to be
cured or to improve his or her mental condition." Disabled people can no longer simply be locked away in "custodial
institutions" without treatment or education. This decision is a crucial victory in the struggle for deinstitutionalization.
1971 Center for the Study of Legal Authority and Mental Patient Status (also known as LAMP)
begun in Berkeley by David Richman
1971 A Question of Madness (trans. from
1971 Russian ed.). by Zhores Medvedev.
1971 Bellevue Is a State of Mind. by
1971 A Time and a Time. London. by S. Davys.
“Life on a Psychiatric Ward.” Mind. by Anonympous.
of the Trade: Notes on Madness, Creativity and Ideology. by J. K. Adams.
1971 The Manufacture of Madness. New York: Dell Publishing Co./Delta, Szasz, Thomas S.
1971 Mental Patients Liberation Project (MPLP) founded by Howie The Harp in New York City wrote a
Mental Patients’ Bill of Rights.
1971 The initial National Household
Survey on Drug Abuse is completed.
1971 Confessions from the Malaga Madhouse:
A Christmas Diary. by Charlotte Painter.
1971 Mental Patients' Association
in Vancouver, Canada begins operating drop-in centers and residences within months of it's founding.
1971 Annual APA meeting in Washington DC features first-ever panel of gay people speaking about
" Lifestyles of Non-Patient Homosexuals".
A Leaf of Spring. by A. Yesenin-Volpin.
1971 The Radical Therapist, a journal
begun in 1971 in North Dakota by Michael Glenn, David Bryan, Linda Bryan, Michael Galan and Sara Glenn, challenged the psychotherapy
establishment in a number of ways, raising the slogan "Therapy means change, not adjustment."
1971 Founding of Bonita House a halfway house in Berkeley, CA for persons who have been in psychiatric
hospitals with c/s/x activist Sherry Hirsch as Executive Director.
Patients Liberation Front (MPLF) founded by two ex-patients in Boston (still in existence and sponsors the Ruby Rogers Advocacy
and Drop-In Center). Printed at the New England Free Press, a 56 page document entitled “Your Rights as a Mental
Patient in Massachusetts”.
1971 Out of the Depths.
by William J. Collins.
1971 The original Soteria House opened in 1971. A replication
facility opened in 1974 in another suburban San Francisco Bay Area City. Despite the publication of consistently positive
results the Soteria Project ended in 1983.
1972 The Commonwealth of Virginia
ceased its sterilization program (begun in 1924). 8300 individuals never received justice regarding their sterilizations.
1972 Will There Really Be a Morning? by Frances Farmer.
A Mingled Yarn. by Beulah Parker.
1972 Red Square at Noon. London. by N. Gorbanevskaya.
1972 First edition of Madness Network News is published.
The Legal Action Center (Washington, D.C. and New York City) was founded to advocate for the interests of people with alcohol
or drug dependencies and later for people with HIV/AIDS.
Saints and Strait Jackets: An Intimate View of Life in an Australian Psychiatric Hospital, By an Ex-Patient. by Barbara Heaslip.
1972 Women and Madness. Phyllis Chesler.
1972 The Network Against Psychiatric Assault (NAPA) is organized in San Francisco.
1972 Twice Through the Lines: The Autobiography of Otto John. by John Otto.
1972 Memoirs of a Mental Case. by Howard J. Etten.
1972 APA annual meeting sponsors panel--"Psychiatry: Friend or Foe to Homosexuals:
A Dialogue"--that includes gay activists, gay sympathetic psychiatrists, and a disguised gay psychiatrist, Dr.
H Anonymous (John Fryer, MD).
1972 Mental Patients Alliance of Central New York is established.
Carol Hayes-Collier is instrumental to the effort.
1972 The Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental
Health Law is founded in Washington, D.C, to provide legal representation and to advocate for the rights of people with mental
1972 Bound for Broadmoor. London.
by Peter Thompson.
1972 Fragments from the Diary of a Madman. London. by Pawel
1972 Social Security Amendments of 1972 created the Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
program. The law relieved families of the financial responsibility of caring for their adult disabled children.
1972 APA annual meeting sponsors panel--"Psychiatry: Friend or Foe to Homosexuals:
A Dialogue"--that includes gay activists, gay sympathetic psychiatrists, and a disguised gay psychiatrist, Dr.
H Anonymous (John Fryer, MD).
1972 The Rehabilitation Act was passed by Congress and vetoed
by President Richard Nixon.
1973 Peter Breggin, M.D. founds
the Center for the Study of Psychiatry.
1973 Journey Out of Nowhere. by Nancy Covert Smith.
1973 I Couldn't Catch the Bus Today: The True Story of a Nervous Breakdown That Became a Pilgrimage.
by David Lazell.
1973 Back to Earth. by Edwin E. "buzz" Aldrin Jr.
(with Wayne Warga).
1973 ADAMHA (Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration) established.
1973 Recovery. by John Berryman.
The Journal of Judith Beck Stein. by Judith Beck Stein.
1973 A Guard Within. London. by Sarah
1973 Madhouse. by Robert Goulet.
1973 The Drug Enforcement
Administration is created by executive order under the Dept. of Justice. Combined the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs
and several other law enforcement organizations.
Threat to Blacks: Brain Surgery to Control Behavior—Controversial Operations Are Coming Back As Violence Curbs. ”Ebony
1973,February, p. 63–72. Mason, B. J.
With Me: The Autobiography of William Kurelek. by William Kurelek (editor J. Maas).
The Rehabilitation Act passed. Of particular interest, Title V, Sections 501, 503 and 504 prohibited discrimination in federal
programs and services and all other programs or services receiving federal funds. Key language in the Rehabilitation Act,
found in Section 504, states “No otherwise qualified handicapped individual in the United States, shall, solely by reason
of his handicap, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under
any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
The first Conference on Human Rights and Psychiatric Oppression is held at the University of Detroit. (held annually
1973 Due to new clinical information and political pressure from the National Gay
Task Force, the American Psychiatric Association changes the diagnosis of homosexuality from a disease to a condition that
can be considered a disease only when subjectively disturbing to the individual. The Board of Trustees (BOT)
of the APA approves the deletion of homosexuality from the DSM-II and substitutes a diagnosis of “Sexual Orientation
is removed from the DSM as a diagnosis in part due to the efforts of protests from the movements.
1973 Lesbian Nation. by Jill Johnston.
I Came to My Island: A Journey Through the Experience of Change. by Hanna Bauer.
Second Conference on Human Rights and Psychiatric Oppression held in Topeka, Kansas. It was the first time it was run
by psychiatric survivors.
1974 Every Day Gets a Little Closer: A Twice-Told
Therapy. by I. Yalon and Ginny Elkin.
1974 W-3. by Bette
1974 Retreat From Sanity. by M. B. Bowers.
1974 “Visions of a Madman,” Madness Network News Reader. by P.G. Harrison. (eds.
S. Hirsh, J. K. Adams, & L.R. Frank).
organized by antigay psychoanalysts to overturn APA BOT decision is defeated. APA members support BOT decision to remove
homosexuality by significant majority.
1974 Wade Blank founded the Atlantis
Community in Denver, Colorado, a model for community-based, consumer-controlled, independent living. The Atlantis Community
provided personal assistance services primarily under the control of the consumer within a community setting.
1974 These Are My Sisters. An "Insandectomy." Tulsa, OK: Vickers,
1947 (reprint) by Lara Jefferson (pseudonym).
Tomorrow a documentary on involuntary treatment at metropolitan state hospital filmed by Richard Cohen and Kevin Rafferty
premiered as a benefit for NAPA, Network Against Psychiatric Assualt to overflow audiences at the Clay Theatre in San
Francisco. Additional screenings continue at other theaters.
Madness Network News Reader. San Fransisco, CA: Glide Publications.
Special issue—“What It’s Like—From the Receiving End.” Mind Out. by Anonymous.
1974 Sketchbook From Hell. by Edward Dixon Garner.
A Quest for Justice: My Confinement in Two Institutions. by Bertrand Wilson.
Second Conference on Human Rights and Psychiatric Oppreassion held in Topeka, Kansas. It was the first time it was run
by psychiatric survivors.
1974 Being Different: The Autobiography of Jane Fry. by Jane Fry.
1974 “Ordeal in a Mental Hospital.” The Radical Therapist. by Anonymous.
1975 Road to Love: An Autobiography. by John Harrison Farmer.
1975 The Far Side of Despair—A Personal Account of Depression. by Russell K. Hampton.
1975 NAPA in Los Angeles is formed after theatrical screenings of Hurry Tomorrow.
The film is reviewed in the Los Angeles Times "...a crucifying indictment of ward conditions, drug companies and the
violations of present laws. The film is an act of courage and a warning about mind control told with compassion and
1975 Time and the Human Robot. by Hope Rogers.
1975 Too Much Anger, Too Many Tears: A Personal Triumph Over Psychiatry. New York: Quadrangle/
The New York Times Book Co. Gotkin, J. & Gotkin, P.
1975 Hospital staff
and state employees union asks the governor to ban Hurry Tomorrow as reported in the Los Angeles Times.
15 years after being told he was “too disabled to work”, Ed Roberts was appointed as the head of Vocational Rehabilitation
for California in, and established 9 CILs in the state.
1975 Too Much Anger,
Too Many Tears: A Personal Triumph over Psychiatry. by Janet Gotkin and Paul Gotkin.
Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142): requires free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive
environment possible for children with disabilities. This law is now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
1975 Developmental Disabilities Bill of Rights Act: among other things,
establishes Protection and Advocacy (P&A) system.
Reality Police: The Experience of Insanity in America. by Anthony Brandt.
The U.S. Supreme Court, in O'Connor v. Donaldson, rules that people cannot be institutionalized against their will in a psychiatric
hospital unless they are determined to be a threat to themselves or to others. It is a violation of civil
rights to medicate, treat, or hospitalize a person against their will.
The Eden Express. (reprinted in 2002). by Mark Vonnegut.
1975 Living with
Depression—and Winning. by Sarah Fraser.
1975 “How I Conquered Claustrophobia.”
Mind Out. by Brigit Barlow.
1975 Addicted to Suicide—A Woman Struggling to Live. by Mary
1975 Hurry Tomorrow is screened at international film festivals including
Edinburgh, London, Rotterdam, Los Angeles Filmex and wins the Grand Prize at Ann Arbor Film Festival.
1975 Whom the Gods Destroy. by John Neary.
1975 One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. by Ken Kesey.
Insanity Inside Out. by Kenneth Donaldson.
1976 Anna. London. by David Reed.
1976 Luisah Teish, an African-American activist,priestess,psychiatric survivor
and author co-edited the 1976 Third World Issue of Madness Network News.
1976 First ECT (Electro-Convulsive
Therapy) informed consent lawsuit.
1976 Josh: My Up and Down, In and Out Life. by
1976 Breakdown. by Stuart Sutherland.
1976 The Grigorenko Papers. by P. G. Grigorenko.
1976 Schizophrenia: The Sacred Symbol of Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books, Szasz, Thomas S.
1976 Governor Brown follows through on his word to NAPA by launching an investigation
into the state hospitals that results in uncovering more than a thousand patient deaths in a three year period. The
story makes headlines both in Los Angeles and California, and nationally. Hurry Tomorrow is credited with triggering
the biggest and continuous news story of that year and is featured on CBS and ABC Evening News.
1976 Hurry Tomorrow is screened at international film festivals including Edinburgh,
London, Rotterdam, Los Angeles Filmex and wins the Grand Prize at Ann Arbor Film Festival.
Midnight Baby-Autobiography. by Basil Hubbard Pollitt.
1976 The Case of Leonid Plyushch (trans.
Marie Sapiets). by Leonid Plyushch.
1976 NAPA conducts a one day protest against
involuntary treatment and slave wages paid to people locked up in state hospitals. The demonstrators spontaneously decide
to occupy the outer office of then Governor Jerry Brown -- they remain there for a month. There is extensive media coverage
and stories throughout California about this extraordinary protest. On July 4th, some NAPA members and the filmmaker
attend a midnight screening of Hurry Tomorrow for Governor Brown, future Governor Gray Davis and Director of Health Jerome
Lachner, in Lackner's home -- a few miles from the protest. After screening the film Governor Brown commits to investigate
conditions in California state hospitals -- once the demonstrators depart his office. Protesters continue an educational
campaign for legislative analysts and lawmakers during their month long stay. The Governor talks to the press about
the protest, involuntary treatment and the film.
Nigger’s Crazy.” Madness Network News, Vol 3:5, March 1976.
Highlights scientific racism from Samuel Cartwright
to Shockley and Jenson. by Teish, Luisa.
of the Half-Known Life. Barker-Benfield, G.J. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
1977 Clouds of Fear. London. by Roger Hall.
Wander, Wander: A Woman's Journey into Herself. by Dix Never.
1977 NIMH (National Institute of
Mental Health) initiates a unique but modestly funded demonstration program, the Community Support Program (CSP) to stimulate
and assist states and localities in improving opportunities and services in the community for people with a serious mental
1977 U.S. Congress created a National Committee
for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research to investigate allegations that psychosurgery —
including lobotomy techniques — was used to control minorities and restrain individual rights.
1977 Midnight Express. by B. Hayes (with W. Hoffer).
1977 The Joy of Gay Sex by Charles Silverstein and Edmund White.
Acceptance is founded (Su Budd, Kansas).
1977 MHCC (Mental Health Consumer Concerns Inc.) is
founded Jay Mahler, Contra Costa County, California).
1977 “My Ambition
is to be Dead.” Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 4(3), 66-83. by A. Hurry.
The Cracker Factory. by Joyce Rebeta-Burditt.
1977 A Case Between Mentally
Sound and Mentally Unsound. by Lai Quek Seng.
1977 I’m Eve. by Chris
Costner Sizemore and Elen Sain Pittillo.
1977 No Longer Lonely. by Pat Ansite.
1977 Mental Patients Rights Association (MPRA), is founded. (Sally Zinman,
West Palm Beach, Florida).
1977 Male model of mental health involves a man’s
ability to “own” or be “serviced by” a woman, men who will not or cannot do this (male homosexuals,
“schizophrenics”, alcoholics or drug addicts) will be labeled neurotic or psychotic and often hospitalized. The
absence of a woman to take care of them despite their lack of masculinity will be associated with longer psychiatric hospital
1977 Vermont Liberation Organization is founded (Paul Dorfner).
1977 Maniac: Anatomy of a Mental Illness. by Charles F. Hellmuth.
final report of President Carter's Commission on Mental health calls for attention to basic community supports for mental
1978 The final report of President Carter's Commission on
Mental health calls for attention to basic community supports for mental health consumers.
On Margate Sands. London. by Bernard Kops.
1978 Love Comes in Buckets. London.
by Katharina Havecamp.
1978 I’m Depressed---Are You Listening Lord? by Peggy Buck.
1978 Mindrape: A Diary of Endogenous Depression. by Frank Emery Sugar.
Nine and a Half Weeks. by Elizabeth McNeill.
1978 To Build a Castle:
My Life as a Dissenter. London. by V. Bukovskii.
1978 History of Shock
Treatment. Leonard Roy Frank
1978 How Not to Kill a Cockroach. by Raya
1978 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act: provides for consumer-controlled centers
for independent living.
1978 On July 5-6, 1978, Wade Blank, founder of ADAPT
(1983) and nineteen disabled activists held a public transit bus "hostage" on the corner of Broadway and Colfax
in Denver, Colorado. ADAPT (originally American Disabled for Accessible Public Transit and later in 1990, American Disabled
for Attendant Programs Today) eventually mushroomed into the nation's first grassroots, disability rights, activist organization.
They used sledge hammers to create the first curb cuts for wheelchairs in the country.
"On Our Own: Patient Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System" a seminal work and standard text of the
psychiatric survivor movement, written by Judi Chamberlin. Published by McGraw Hill.
Another World. by Irene Drory.
1978 Shrinking. by Alan Lelchuk.
1978 Brando for Breakfast. by A. K. Brando.
Italian law 180 prevented the admission of any new cases to long-stay hospitals.
1979 From stigma to identity politics: Political activism among the physically disabled and former
mental patients. Social Science & Medicine, 13, 65-773. Anspach, R.
Birdy. by William Wharton.
1979 I’m Dancing As Fast
As I Can. by Barbara Gordon.
1979 The Anti-Psychiatry Bibliography and
Resource Guide. by Frank K. Portland.
1979 “Coping with Schizophrenia.”
Mind Out. by Anne.
1979 Strangers No More—Diary of a Schizo. by Joy Larkin.
Life-Time. by Jane Rittmaye.
1979 History’s Carnival. by Leonid Plyushch.
1979 Schizophrenia—the Hell Within. Community Care. by Martha Robinson.
1980 Congress passes the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA),
authorizing the U.S. Justice Department to file civil suits on behalf of residents of institutions whose rights are being
1980 The Mental Health Systems Act of 1980 authorizes expansion of community mental
1980 The Politics of Ecstasy. Ronin Publishing.
1980 Bog-Trotter. by Dory Previn.
1980 Congress passes
the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, authorizing the U.S. Justice Department to file civil suits on behalf of
residents of institutions whose rights are being violated.
1980 The Shoe Leather
Treatment: The Inspiring Story of Bill Thomas' Triumphant Nine-Year Fight for Survival in a State Hospital for the Criminally
Insane as Told to S. T. Stebel. by S. T. Stebel.
1980 DSM-III creates a new class, the “psychosexual
disorders,” including psychosexual dysfunction, paraphilia (fetishism), gender identity disorder (transsexualism), and
1980 Social Security
Amendments, Section 1619 was passed. Designed to address work disincentives within the Social Security Disability Insurance
and Supplemental Security Income programs, other provisions mandated a review of Social Security recipients. This led to the
termination of benefits of hundreds of thousands of people with disabilities.
1980 “Three essays on patients’ experiences of ECT.” British Journal of Psychiatry,
137, 8-16; 17-25; 26-37. by C. P. L. Freeman, et al.
1980 Dr. Caligari's Psychiatric
Drugs published by the Network Against Psychiatric Assault.
1980 The Mental
Patients Alliance of Central New York (the Mental Patients Liberation Alliance), led by George Ebert, initiates the annual
remembrance of Bastille Day (July 14) as a celebration of the human spirit and vigil and demonstration to stop psychiatric
1980 Institute of Fools. by Viktor Nekipelov.
1980 Save Me! A Young Woman's Journey Through Schizophrenia to Health. by Judy Lee.
1980 The Long Journey Home. by Carol Ferland.
National Association for Rights Protection and Advocacy is formed.
passes the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, authorizing the U.S. Justice Department to file civil suits on behalf
of residents of institutions whose rights are being violated.
1980 The Mental
Health Systems Act of 1980 authorizes expansion of community mental health centers.
“Three Meetings with Madness,” Mind Out. by David Brandon.
The APA published a new Diagnostic and Statistics Manual (DSM III), in place of homosexuality was a new diagnosis, "Gender
Identity Disorder in Childhood," also known as "Sissy Boy Syndrome."
1980 Social Security Amendments, Section 1619 was passed. Designed to address work disincentives within
the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs, other provisions mandated a review of
Social Security recipients. This led to the termination of benefits of hundreds of thousands of people with disabilities.
1980 The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual has grown to 224 mental
disorders in the DSM-III from the 112 mental disorders in its initial, 1952 edition.
1981 Portland Coalition for the Psychiatrically Labeled (PCPL) organized by Sally
Clay in Portland, Maine.
1981 “I Can’t Imagine Life Without Mental
Illness.” Mind Out. by George.
1981 P.L. 97-35 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation
Act of 1981 created State Mental Health Block Grants.
1981 The epidemic of
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV virus infections presents mental health professionals with a series of
challenges including: treating patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression and differentiating organic symptoms from symptoms
of HIV brain infection.
1982 Rogers v. Macht (Rogers v. Okin or Rogers v.
Commissioner of Mental Health) filed and finally adjudicated in 1982 establishing a limited right to refuse treatment (psychiatric
drugs) in Massachusetts.
1982 Berkley California votes to ban shock treatment
after ballot campaign run by psychiatric survivors. Ted Chabasinski organized this.
Starving for Attention. by Cherry Boone O'Neill.
1982 Berkley California votes
to ban shock treatment after ballot campaign run by psychiatric survivors. Ted Chabasinski organized this.
1982 Mary Barnes: Two accounts of a journey through madness. Second edition. New York: Penguin
Books. Barnes, M. and Berke, J.
1982 APA establishes the a Caucus of Homosexual-Identified
Psychiatrists which later becomes the Caucus of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Psychiatrists.
Declaration of Principles adopted at the Tenth Annual International Conference on Human Rights and Psychiatric Oppression,
held in Toronto, Canada on May l4-l8 1982.
Holiday of Darkness. by Norman S. Endler. (revised ed., Toronto: Wall & Thompson, 1990).
1982 Berkley California votes to ban shock treatment after ballot campaign run
by psychiatric survivors.
1983 Psychiatric Dugs: Hazardas to the Brain. Petter Breggin,
1983 Leaves from Many Seasons: Selected papers. by O. H. Mowrer.
1983 The American Medical Society in Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is formed. Its creation
is the result of efforts to combine several professional medical organizations under the auspices of a single entity for physicians
interested in chemical dependency.
1983 “The manufacture of madness:
An interview with Samuel Delany.” Pheonix Rising: The voice of the psychiatrized. Fall 1983. Volume 4, Number 2.
1983 "Schizophrenia: Exploding the Myth". Phoenix Rising 3:3, 1983. Weitz,
1983 “Life in an Insane Asylum.”
Overland Monthly. 13:161-171. by Charles Coyle.
1983 California Network of Mental Health Clients
founded. Sally Zinman, among the 21 member founding Steering Committee, was its part time Coordinator for the first year of
its existence and then later Executive Director from 1997 -2007.
Words to Say It. by Marie Cardinal.
1983 A national monthly teleconference
of people with psychiatric histories is established. It ran for over two years with hundreds of people and 28 locations.
Participants include movement leaders from around the United States.
Mental Patients Alliance of Central New York is incorporated doing business as the Mental Patients Liberation Alliance.
1983 Am I Still Visible? A Woman’s Triumph over Anorexia Nervosa. by
Sandra Harvey Heater.
1984 An Angel at My Table: An Autobiography.
by Janet Frame.
1984 Afraid of Everything: A Personal History of Agoraphobia. by D. M.
1984 To be a Mental Patient written by Rae Unzicker.
1984 I Speak for the Silent. UK. by Alexandra [Messenger].
A Private Practice. by Patrick Reilly.
1984 Early efforts to involve consumers
in research include the People FIrst study in California (1984) and the Hill House Project in Ohio (published 1990).
1984 Mollie Fancher: The Brooklyn Enigma. An Authentic Statement of Facts in the Life of Mary J. Fancher.
The Psychological Marvel of the Nineteenth Century. by Abram H. Dailey.
1984 Congress passed the 1984
National Minimum Drinking Age Act that persuaded states to raise the minimum age from 18 to 21 for the purchase and possession
1984 Congress passed the 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act
that persuaded states to raise the minimum age from 18 to 21 for the purchase and possession of alcohol.
1984 Committee for Truth in Psychiatry (CTIP), a national organization of survivors of electroconvulsive
treatment (ECT), founded by Marilyn Rice, directed by Linda Andre.
Mental Health Consumers' Self-Help Clearing House is founded by Joseph Rogers as a division of Project SHARE (Self-Help and
Advocacy Resource Exchange), a consumer organization based at the Mental Health Association of Southeastern Pennsylvania.
1984 Home From Seven North. by M. Thomas.
Congress appropriated funds in 1984 for the Child and Adolescent Service System Program (CASSP), envisioned as a comprehensive
mental health system designed for children, adolescents and their families. These are known as the CASSP Principles.
1985 Snowblind. London. by Cherry Smith.
Jambalaya:The Natural Woman’s Book of Personal Charms and Practical Rituals. San Francisco: Harper and Row, Teish, Luisah
1985 Baltimore, Maryland “Alternatives” On Our Own of Maryland
Alternatives: Getting Organized.
1985 National Institute of Mental Health issues a Request
for proposals for consumer-run national technical assistance centers.
First annual Alternatives conference - Alternatives '85 - organized by On Our Own of Maryland.
1985 Rappaport in a keynote address to the third annual meeting of the New York City Self-Help Clearinghouse
1985 The last International Conference on Human Rights
and Against Psychiatric Oppression is held.
Step Players began. It is the oldest peer run theater group in the United States.
Mind/World Federation for Mental Health Congress in Brighton - the
first time UK survivors met groups of activists from
1985 Born a Number. London. by Len Harding.
1985 Mental Illness Bill of Rights Act: requires protection and advocacy services (P&A)
for people with mental illness.
1985 Two national organizations are born:
the National Mental Health Consumers' Association and the National Alliance (or Association?) of Mental Patients, later renamed
the National Alliance (or Association) of Psychiatric Survivors. Both groups are now defunct.
Farm, Pottstown, PA (See National Coalition of Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Organizations)
Thinking in Pictures, and Other Reports from My Life with Autism. by Temple Grandin.
1985 Collaborative Support Programs of New Jersey (CSPNJ), directed by Jack Bucher,
began providing peer delivered and managed services.
NAMI client council was formed in 1988.
Same year Tom Posey of Montana was elected the first "consumer" to the NAMI board of directors at their annual conference
in Boulder, Colorado. Today it is called the NAMI Consumer Council. One of the Council’s subcommittees works
to eliminate seclusion and restraint. 1985-01-01 00:00:00 -0500
1985 National Institute of Mental Health issues a Request for proposals for consumer-run national
technical assistance centers.
1985 Survivor-run conference replaced by NIMH
funded "Alternatives" conference . . . An alternative to an independent movement.
Madness Network News ceases publication.
1985 Establishment of the Association of Gay and Lesbian
1985 CSPNJ received funding from the NJ Division of Mental Health
and Hospitals to fund three Consumer-run Drop-In Centers.
1985 Protest at
the Philadelphia Housing Authority to get them to change discriminatory policy related to CSX folks having to have a note
from their psychiatrist to be granted housing. Joe Rogers, Susan Rogers, Glenda Fine, Alicia Christian and I - chained
ourselves to their front door and driveway gate.
of originating nonprofit project with start-up funding from Levinson Foundation. The goal is to publish a newsletter, Dendron,
and provide a "Clearinghouse on Human Rights and Psychiatry," to help network mental health consumers, psychiatric
survivors, and supporters.
1986 CONTAC, in West Virginia, third consumer run
technical assistance center by NIMH, headed by Larry Belcher and Kathy Muscari.
Patients Council Support Group, which became Nottingham
Advocacy Group (NAG).
National Empowerment Center and National Mental Health Consumers' Clearinghouse receive funding from National Institute of
Mental Health Community Support Program.
1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986
increased sentences and re-imposed mandatory minimums. Judges are required to impose minimum sentences based on the type and
quantity of drug involved.
1986 Plaintext: Essays. by Nancy Mairs.
1986 The first group of psychiatric survivor/consumers trained to work for the mental health
system as professionals were trained in Denver, Colorado as Consumer Case Manager Aides (CCMA's)(Pat Risser). These
"peer providers" were the first to provide services that were billable to Medicaid under the Medicaid Rehabilitation
Option Waiver in effect for Colorado.
1986 Following numerous reports of
abuse and neglect in state psychiatric hospitals and inadequate safeguards of patient rights, Congress passed the Protection
and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness (PAIMI) Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-319; 42 U.S.C. 10801 et seq). This Act was modeled
after the DD (Developmentally Disabled) Act and extended similar protections to persons with mental illness who reside in
facilities. The Act was designed to set up protection and advocacy agencies for people who were in-patients or residents of
mental health facilities.
1986 National Voices Forum established.
1986 Survivors Speak Out formed - the first national UK networking & campaigning group.
1986 The Life of a Real Girl. by Johanna Garfield.
CSPNJ supported the development of the coalition of Mental Health Consumers Organizations (COMHCO), which advocates on behalf
of mental health consumers to enhance and strengthen services provided by the Division of Mental Health Services.
Incorporation of originating nonprofit project with start-up funding from Levinson Foundation. The goal is to publish a newsletter,
Dendron, and provide a "Clearinghouse on Human Rights and Psychiatry," to help network mental health consumers,
psychiatric survivors, and supporters.
1986 Nancy Reagan introduces her "Just
Say No" anti-drug campaign and the Office of Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was created.
1986 The State Mental Health Planning Act of 1986 requires stakeholder involvement in the State Block
1986 Cincinnati, Ohio W.E. C.A.R.E. Network Unlocking
1986 Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986 defined supported employment
as a "legitimate rehabilitation outcome."
1986 36,000 teens admitted
in psychiatric hospitals many as a reaction to report of child sexual abuse for treatment - on an involuntary status.
1986 Nancy Reagan introduces her "Just Say No" anti-drug campaign and the Office of
Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was created.
1986 The American Medical Society
on Alcoholism and Other Drug Dependence is formed. Its creation is the result of efforts to combine several professional medical
organizations under the auspices of a single entity for physicians interested in chemical dependency.
1986 Showing on national TV of 'We're Not Mad, We're Angry', a programme
made by survivors.
1986 After considerable deliberations the Board decided in the end of 1986 to restructure the
organization and give control to consumers. The newly consumer controlled board altered the bylaws and CSPNJ became
a statewide consumer run provider agency that would act as an umbrella for consumer service initiatives throughout New Jersey.
CSPNJ currently operates 22 Self-help Centers, Supportive Housing Services, a R & W Training Institute, financial support
services, property management and partnerships with the NJ Division of Mental Health Services in providing a growing # of
peer delivered services within state psychiatric hospitals.
1986 Howie the Harp founds the Oakland Independence Support Center.
Federal Analogue Act created a new legal definition of "analog" and placed analogs of a controlled substance into
the same schedule as that substance.
1986 Public Law 99-660 (The Healthcare Quality Improvement
Act of 1986), and continuing through Public Law 101-639 (1990), Public Law 102-321 (1992), and Public Law 106-310 (2000),
where the federal government mandated mental health planning as a condition for receipt of federal mental health block grant
funds and mandated participation by stakeholder groups, including people living with mental illness and their families, in
the planning process. P.L. 99-660 also mandated, "the provision of case management services to each chronically mentally
ill individual in the states who receives substantial amounts of public funds or services."
1987 When Rabbit Howls: The Troops for Trudi Chase. by Trudi Chase (introduction and epilogue by R. A.
1987 The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness, II: Long-term
outcome of subjects who retrospectively met DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 727-735.
by Harding, C., Brooks, G., Ashikaga, T., Strauss, J., and Breier, A
A movement began to include the parents of children diagnosed as Seriously Emotionally Disturbed (SED) in policy and program
planning in an effort to add a family prospective to children’s mental health services. Studies were initiated
and mental health professionals began to explore the role of families in the care of their children with emotional or behavioral
1987 First lawsuit against a shock machine manufacturer.
1987 The Edale Conference, organised by Survivors Speak Out, which produced a charter
of needs and demands that became a campaigning tool.
1987 The American
Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual has grown to 253 mental disorders in the DSM-III-R from the 112
mental disorders in its initial, 1952 edition.
1987 SCCORE (Statewide Consumers
of Colorado On the Rise for Empowerment) founded by Pat Risser.
1987 Eli Lilly
introduces Prozac. Within 20 years antidepressants become the most commonly prescribed class of drug in the U.S.
1987 Reaching across: Mental health clients helping each other (2nd ed.). by Howie the Harp,
Sue Budd, and Sally Zinman.
1987 Saying ‘No’ to Psychiatry. Progressive,
51, 17-17. by M. Schultz.
1987 Welcome Silence: My Triumph over Schizophrenia.
by Carol S. North.
1987 Dendron News first published in January.
1987 DSM-III-Revised deletes the diagnosis of homosexuality entirely, leaving the paraphilias
and sexual dysfunctions as the two main classes of "sexual disorders"
Texas Network of Mental Health Consumers (now Texas Mental Health Consumers (TMHC) was created.
1987 Saying ‘No’ to Psychiatry. Progressive, 51, 17-17. Schultz, M
1987 The Charlston Morbidity Scale is published. Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, McKenzie CR (1987). A
new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chron Dis, 40(5):
1987 Call Me Anna: The Autobiography of Patty Duke. by Patty Duke
(with K. Turan).
1987 Justin Dart, Commissioner
of the Rehabilitation Services Administration, was forced to resign after he testified to Congress that “an inflexible
federal system, like the society it represents, still contains a significant portion of individuals who have not yet overcome
obsolete, paternalistic attitudes toward disability…”
is formed and has grown into an international network with 14 participating countries.
Dr. Caligari's Psychiatric Drugs. Berkeley, CA: Network Against Psychiatric Assault. Richman, D., Frank, L., & Mandler,
1987 The serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine (Prozac
®), paroxetine (Paxil ®), and sertraline (Zoloft ®) are developed by several American pharmaceutical companies
to treat depression.
1987 Huntington, West Virginia WV Mental Health
Consumers’ Association Supporting the Grass Roots Self-Help Movement.
Pennsylvanial Mental Health Consumers' Association was established.
1987 On December 7, 1987,
a press conference was held to announce the closure of the Philadelphia State Hospital. The hospital officially closed in
June of 1990. Joseph Rogers was a key member of the Coalition for the Responsible Closing of Philadelphia State Hospital,
which worked successfully to get the state hospital dollars to follow the patients into the community, establishing a model
system of community-based services.
1988 Seaview Times of South Beach Psychiatric
Center. Adolescent Unit. Edited by the "Patients".
1988 Community Support
Program (CSP) of the National Institute of Mental Health funds local consumer-operated Services Demonstration Projects from
1988 - 1991.
1988 Housing Amendments Act: prohibits discrimination in housing against people with disabilities
and families with children
1988 A Social History of Madness: The World through
the Eyes of the Insane. by Roy Porter.
1988 Alternatives held in Salt Lake City, Utah,
sponsored by U-CAN-DU. The theme: Working Together.
1988 Housing Amendments Act:
prohibits discrimination in housing against people with disabilities and families with children.
1988 The Mental Health Empowerment Project started doing business as Mental Health Recipient's Empowerment
Project and later to the current name, Mental Health Empowerment Project.
"100 Years Of ‘Just Say No' Versus ‘Just Say Know'". Evaluation Review. 1988; 22(1):15-45 Beck, J.
1988 President George H. Bush creates the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy
to determine policies and priorities for the Nation's drug control programs.
Getting Better: Inside Alcoholics Anonymous. by N. Robertson.
1988 When the Spirits Come Back.
Toronto. by Janet O. Dallett.
1988 Civil Rights Restoration Act: counteracts
bad case law by clarifying Congress' original intention that under the Rehabilitation Act, discrimination in ANY program or
service that is a part of an entity receiving federal funding -- not just the part which actually and directly receives the
funding -- is illegal. Congress has to override President Ronald Reagan's veto of this legislation.
1988 Office of National Drug Control Policy created by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The
head of the ONDCP is the "drug czar", a cabinet level position.
Keeping Secrets. by S. Somers.
1988 Father Have I Kept My Promise? Madness
as Seen from Within. E. Weisskopf-Joelson (editor).
1988 Not Always on a Level.
Cambridge. by Moran E. J. Campbell,.
1988 President George H. Bush creates the White
House Office of National Drug Control Policy to determine policies and priorities for the Nation's drug control programs.
1988 First Office of Consumer Affairs in a state mental health agency, directed
by David Hilton in New Hampshire.
1988 Recovery; The lived experience or rehabilitation.
Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 11(4), p.11-19. Pat Deegan.
Conditions. London. Tsitsi Dangarembga.
1988 CSPNJ developed the agency’s
first supported housing plan and leased our first supportive house in Asbury Park on January 1, 1989.
1988 Dietary Supplements Act broadened the definition of "dietary supplements" (as distinguished
from "foods" and "drugs") and significantly lessened FDA control over them.
1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 replaced the term "recreational use" with "abuse"
in the federal vocabulary. Strengthened ability to confiscate property in drug-related crimes. Re-instated the death penalty
1988 "Manufacturing Madness: How Psychiatric Institutions
Drive You Insane." Canadian Dimension, June 1988, 16-21. Weitz, Don.
The original version of the American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) is introduced to Congress.
1989 Mouth: The Voice of Disability Rights began publication in Rochester, New York.
1989 John Kane, an American psychiatrist, demonstrates that clozapine is efficacious in schizophrenic
patients who are refractory to treatment with other antipsychotic drugs; the FDA approves the drug in 1989.
1989 Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness. by Mary Barnes and Joseph Berke.
1989 Talking back: Thinking feminist,
thinking black. Boston: South End Press. by belle hooks.
1989 More than a
thousand attendees of Alternatives '89, in Columbia, SC, passed a resolution demanding a ban on forced electroconvulsive treatment
and calling for truly informed consent om ECT and creation of a alternatives to ECT.
patients in state and county hospitals in the U.S. drops below 100,000.
1989 Understanding Race, Ethnicity
and Power: The Key to Efficacy in Clinical Practice. New York: The Free Press. Pinderhughes, Elaine.
1989 Katherine, It’s Time: An Incredible Journey into the World of a Multiple Personality.
by Kit Castle and S. Bechtel.
1989 The Well-Being Scale is developed (Campbell
1989 On my own: A personal journey through madness and re-emergence. Psychological
Rehabilitation Journal 13, p.70-77 by Rae Unzicker.
1989 Emergency Messages:
An Autobiographical Miscellany. by C. Solomon (editor J. Tytell).
1989 Mental health consumer participation on boards and committees: Barriers and strategies. Canada’s
Mental Health, June, 8-11. by M. B. Valentine and P. Capponi.
The Well Being Project (Campbell & Schraiber, 1989, Campbell, 1992) added to understanding the concept of quality of life
from the perspectives of consumers.
1989 Both the federal and state governments offered funding
and the Mental Health Association in New York State received a grant to hire a parent of a child with behavioral and emotional
difficulties for the purpose of connecting parents of these special needs children to others across the state and to develop
a newsletter to access the needs of these families. The Parent Support Network was formed in New York.
1989 A Mind of My Own. by Chris Costner Sizemore and Elen Sain Pittillo.
1989 Alternatives held in Columbia, South Carolina sponsored by South Carolina SHARE.
1989 “On My Own: A Personal Journey Through Madness and Re-Emergence.”Psychosocial
Rehabilitation Journal. 13: 71-77. by Rae Unzicker.
Sacred: Conversations, Writings, Paintings. London. by Mary Barnes (with Ann Scott).
Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness. by William Styron.
1990 The ex-patients’
movement: Where we’ve been and where we are going. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11:323-336. Chamberlin, J.
1990 Several hundred people mark Bastille Day with a march and rally organized by the National
Mental Health Consumers' Clearing House at Alternatives '90 in Pittsburgh, PA.
The ex-patients’ movement: Where we’ve been and where we are going. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11:323-336.
by Judi Chamberlin.
1990 Spirit breaking: When the helping professions hurt.
The Humanistic Psychologist, 18, 301-313. by Pat Deegan.
1990 As for the Sky,
Falling: A Critical Look at Psychiatry and Suffering. Toronto. by Lynne Shelagh Supeene.
1990 Support Coalition International (SCI) (now called MindFreedom) founded in
May. Publication Dendron sponsors a several-day international counter-conference and protest of American Psychiatric Association
in New York City called a "Support-In." At end of counter-conference, 13 initial sponsoring groups form a
new coalition. Mental Patients Liberation Alliance in Syracuse, New York provides organizational and fiscal sponsorship.
1990 CSPNJ supported the development of GROW Self-Help Mutual Aid Groups for
mental health consumers in New Jersey.
1990 At end of counter-conference with
Support Coalition International, 13 initial sponsoring groups form a new coalition. Mental Patients Liberation Alliance in
Syracuse, New York provides organizational and fiscal sponsorship.
Spirit breaking: When the helping professions hurt. The Humanistic Psychologist, 18, 301-313. by Patricia Deegan.
The Loony-Bin Trip. by Kate Millett.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is signed by President George Bush on 26 July. It protects the civil rights
of people with disabilities, and gives some protection to people with mental illness by stating, "services and supports
must be provided in the most integrated setting appropriate to the individual" thus advocating for community placement
for people. Closely modeled after the Civil Rights Act and Section 504, the law was the most sweeping disability rights legislation
in history. It mandated that local, state and federal governments and programs be accessible, that businesses with more than
15 employees make “reasonable accommodations” for disabled workers and that public accommodations such as restaurants
and stores make “reasonable modifications” to ensure access for disabled members of the public. The act also mandated
access in public transportation, communication, and in other areas of public life. Joseph Rogers served on the Congressional
Task Force on the Rights and Empowerment of Americans with Disabilities, which worked on getting the ADA passed.
1990 Now You Know. by Kitty Dukakis (with J. Srovell).
1990 Altered States of the Arts - a nationwide network of mental health consumers and survivors
whose mission is to promote the arts as a vehicle for social change, personal empowerment and employment - was founded by
Gayle Bluebird, Howie the Harp, Dianne Cote and Sally Clay. and other movement leaders at Alternatives in Pittsburgh.
1990 APA issues position statement opposing discrimination against gay people in the military.
1990 My Experiences With Clinical Depression. bu G. F. Mundfrom.
1990 Since the 1990s 44 state psychiatric hospitals were closed.
Publication Dendron sponsors a several-day international counter-conference and protest of American Psychiatric Association
in New York City called a "Support-In."
1990 The ex-patients' movement:
Where we've been and where we're going. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11, 323-336. by Judi Chamberlin.
1990 The Hearing Voices Network established.
Alternatives held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania sponsored by the National Mental Health Consumers’ Self-Help Clearinghouse
(Clearinghouse). Theme: Together, Tearing Down the Walls.
Women: Madness, Myth, and Metaphor" video available through NARPA.
1990 Philadelphia State
Hospital officially closed in June of 1990.
1991 American Psychoanalytic Association
issues position statement opposing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in the selection of psychoanalytic candidates.
1991 The World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry (WNUSP), originally founded as the
World Federation of Psychiatric Users (WFPU).
1991 "Alternatives '91"
conference in Berkeley draws over 2,000 participants for the largest consumer/survivor conference ever. Howie The Harp calls
this the largest voluntary gathering of mental patients in the known galaxy. It was also the last time the Alternatives conference
was held on a college campus.
1991 At Alternatives '91 the first juried Talent
Showcase was produced by Altered States of the Arts and emceed by Howie the Harp.
Nobody’s Child. by M.Balter and R. Katz.
1991 Flock: The Autobiography of
a Multiple Personality. by Joan F. Casey and Lynn Wilson.
1991 Racism and
Psychiatry. New York: Carol Publishing Group. Thomas, Alexander and Samuel Sillen.
Survivors Poetry set up in London to run workshops and performances,
which spread to many other cities.
1991 PEOPLe: Projects to Empower and Organize the Psychiatrically Labeled (Sally Clay, Poughkeepsie,
1991 Sandy Stone’s “Posttranssexual Manifesto”.
1991 Black Psychology (3rd Edition). Berkeley, CA: Cobb and Henry Publishers. Jones, Reginald L, ed.
1991 American Psychoanalytic Association issues position statement opposing discrimination on
the basis of sexual orientation in the selection of psychoanalytic candidates
Toxic Psychiatry. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Peter Breggin.
The Myth of Psychology. Fred Newman.
1991 In New York State The Office
of Mental Health received a grant to develop an individualized care approach to serving children and families. Five
parents were hired as regional parent advisors.
1991 Ginny Wood, as Director of the Parent
Support Network, assembled a steering committee of 10 parents, including the five Office of Mental Health Regional parent
advisors, to develop a Statewide parent support organization. A mission statement and by-laws were developed for the
newly named organization – Families Together in New York State.
The Breathless Orgasm. by John Money, Gordon Wainwright, and David Hingsburger.
1991 Alternatives held in Berkeley, California sponsored by West Coast Coalition Unifying through Diversity,
Empowering with Dignity.
1991 At Alternatives '91 in Berkeley, The Fruits
and Nuts was conceived.and our mission established in '92's Alternatives in Philly.
1992 Client/Practitioners offer both insights. Darby Penney OMH News.
1992 Judi Chamberlin, Pat Deegan and Dan Fisher found the National Empowerment Center, Lawrence,
MA, with assistance from a TA grant by CSP, NIMH.
1992 Humanizing the
recovery process. Resources, 4(1). 7-8 by Dan Fisher
1992 The Independent Living Movement and
people with psychiatric disabilities: Taking back control over our own lives. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 15, 3-19.
1992 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
(SAMHSA) established by Congress under the ADAMHA (Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration) Reorganization Act,
Public Law 102-321 on October 1, 1992. SAMHSA includes CMHS (Center for Mental Health Services).
1992 Alternatives held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Power Through Sharing and Knowledge.
1992 National Artists for Mental Health (Frank Marquit, Hudson,New York).
1992 Reauthorization of the Rehabilitation Act: provides for greater consumer control through
the development of Statewide Independent Living Councils (SILC's). Title I presumption of eligibility and 60-day eligibility
determination period. Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act were infused with the philosophy of independent living.
1992 New York State OMH appoints first Office of Consumer Affairs (Darby Penney)
1992 Youth Empowerment Association! (YEA!) in New York State is created.
1992 Consumer/Survivor Mental Health Research and Policy Work Group Task Force, Focus groups on
outcome measures/client outcomes. Fort Lauderdale, FL
1992 Judi Chamberlin
was awarded the Distinguished Service Award of the President of the United States by the President's Committee on Employment
of People with Disabilities.
1992 CMHS had an annual CSP conference and probably 50-60 consumer
walked out of the 2nd day of the conference, marched to the CMHS office and
demanded a meeting with Bernie
Arons about lack of consumer/survivor input
into the conference... and were granted a meeting.
1992 Upstairs in the Crazy House: The Life of a Psychiatric Survivor. Toronto. by Pat Capponi.
1992 National Association of Consumer/Survivor Mental Health Administrators (NAC/SMHA) is founded.
1992 Westchester Youth Forum in New York State opens its doors.
Artists for Mental Health (Frank Marquit, Hudson,New York).
offer both insights. Darby Penney OMH News.
1992 Consumer/Survivor Mental Health Research
and Policy Work Group Task Force Reports, (June, July, September) identify recovery, personhood, well-being and liberty as
valued outcomes that are not usually measured or operationalized in traditional mental health research or program evaluations.
1992 American Psychoanalytic Association modifies position statement opposing discrimination
on the basis of sexual orientation to include faculty, supervising and training analysts.
A Brilliant Madness: Living with Manic-Depressive Illness. by Patty Duke (with Gloria Hochman).
1992 The UK Advocacy Network (UKAN) established to bring together survivor groups engaged in advocacy.
1992 A report by the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Britain on ECT states, 21% of surveyed
psychiatrists reported "long term side-effects and risks of brain damage, memory loss [and] intellectual impairment."
1992 PEER Center (formed by a coalition of peer advocates, Fort Lauderdale,
1992 The first meeting of the People of Color Caucus was held, at Alternative '92 in Philadelphia.
The organization is now known as the American Association of People of Color Mental Health Consumers.
1992 President George H. Bush signs the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration Reauthorization
Act creating the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
CSPNJ partnered with Monarch Housing Association in order to purchase consumer supportive housing throughout New Jersey.
1992 Consumer/Survivor Mental Health Research and Policy Work Group Task Force, Focus groups
on outcome measures/client outcomes. Fort Lauderdale, FL
1992 Murdered Heiress,
Living Witness. by P. Wagner.
1992 Nobody Nowhere: The Extraordinary
Autobiography of an Autistic. by Donna Williams.
1992 The US network established,
a national survivor network in Wales.
1992 You Must Be Dreaming. b Barbara
1992 The Independent Living Movement and people with psychiatric disabilities:
Taking back control over our own lives. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 15, 3-19. Deegan, P.
1992 CSPNJ developed Supportive Services program, to augment our support services program for our
residents, with assistance from the National Institute for Mental Health’s Service System Improvement Grant.
1992 Beyond Therapy, beyond science: a new model for healing the whole person. by Anne Wilson.
San Francisco, CA: Harper San Francisco,
1992 Miss Altered States debuted
at Alternatives '92 at the Adams Mark Hotel in Philadelphia, PA.
York: Community Access hires Howie The Harp as Director of Advocacy. New York City Recipients' Coalition, Peer Specialist
1993 CSPNJ initiated Butterfly Property
Management (BPM) to serve as the not-for-profit to serve as CSPNJ’s property management organization for our multiple
supportive housing properties, offices, and self-help centers.
Recovering our sense of value
after being labeled. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 31, 7-11. by Patricia Deegan.
heresy and the rumor of angels: The revolt against the mental health system. Chicago: Open Court Press. Farber, S.
1993 Consumer-practitioners and psychiatrists share insights about recovery and coping. Disability
Studies Quarterly 13(2), p, 17-20. Blanch, A., Fisher, D., Tucker, W., Walsh, D. and J. Chassman.
1993 From lab rat to researcher: The history, models, and policy implications of consumer/survivor
involvement in research. Paper presented at the fourth annual national conference of state mental health agency services research
and program evaluation, Annapolis, MD. by Jean Campbell, Ruth Ralph, and Robert Glover.
Touched with fire: Manic-depressive illness and the artistic temperament. New York: Free Press Paperbacks. Jamison, K. R.
1993 Picking Up the Pieces: Two Accounts of a Psychoanalytic Journey. by Fayek Nakhla
and Grace Jackson.
1993 “The Stepladder to the Impossible: A First Hand Phenomenological
Account of a Schizoaffective Psychotic Crisis.” Journal of Mental Health. 2: 239-250. by
Peter K. Chadwick.
1993 Girl interrupted. New York, NY: Vintage Books. by
1993 Work on creating Nation's first civil service Peer Specialist
position begins in New
York State. Celia Brown is named Director of Peer Specialist Services.
1993 Alternatives held in Columbus, Ohio sponsored by the National Empowerment Center (NEC). A Celebration
of Our Spirit.
1993 And They Call it Help; the psychiatric policing of our children. by Louise
Armstrong US: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
reform the system, bringing a ‘human face’ to research. Resources, 5, 3-6. by A. Scott.
1993 CSPNJ opened our Southern Regional Office in collaboration with the Mental Health Association
(MHA) in New Jersey in Pleasantville to develop Supportive Services Program to address the ramifications of the New Jersey
Division of Mental Health and Hospitals’ 450 Program taking persons out of Ancora Psychiatric Hospital into the community.
1993 Consumers/survivors reform the system, bringing a ‘human face’ to research.
Resources, 5, 3-6. Scott, A.
1993 Reaching across II: Maintaining our roots:
The challenge of growth. by Howie the Harp and Sally Zinman.
on My Way Home from Mars. London. Mary O'Hagan.
1993 The National Self-Harm
Network established (UK).
1993 President Bill Clinton's unsuccessful
effort to end discrimination against gays in the military leads to the compromise: Don't Ask, Don't Tell
1993 The Patient Build Wall, some of which still stands, on th grounds of Centre for Addiction
and Mental Health has been a part of Psychiatric Survivor and Mad Pride annual activities in the City of Toronto since 1993
when Toronto's first Psychiatric Survivor Pride Day hosted by West End Survivors.
46 State mental health departments funded 567 self-help groups and agencies (NASHMPD).
their money where their mouths are: SMHA support of consumer and family-run programs.” Arlington, VA, National
Association of State Mental Health Program Directors.
The Letter of a Victorian Madwoman. by J. S. Hughes (editor).
Lakeshore Hospital, Manchester, NH, a psychiatric hospital, was closed.
Movement leaders met with President Bill Clinton as part of an historic White House dialogue with 28 leaders of major disability
constituencies. Among participants were Joseph Rogers and Judi Chamberlin.
1994 The mad among
us: A history of the care of America’s mentally ill. New York, NY: The Free Press. by Grob, G.
Murderous Memories: One Woman’s Hellish Battle to Save Herself. by Jean Small Brinson.
1994 The writing on the wall: Women’s autobiography and the asylum. by M. E. Wood.
1994 NY State OMH hires five regional recipient affairs persons. Mary Auslander is hired
for the New York City Field Office.
1994 Aleternatives is held in Anaheim,
sponsored by the California Clearinghouse Celebrating Ten Years of Alternatives: A Decade of Dignity, Wellness and Unity.
1994 Women of the Asylum: Voices From Behind the Walls, 1840–1945. New York: Anchor Press.
Geller J L, Harris M (eds).
1994 The Quiet Room: A Journey Out of the Torment of Madness. by
Lori Schiller and Amanda Bennett.
1994 The FDA approves Risperidone.
1994 In Italy, from 1994-1995, laws aimed to accelerate closure of mental
hospitals. Laws fined hospitals and local health units if they did not close before the end of 1999.
1994 Somebody Somewhere: Breaking Free from the World of Autism. by Donna Williams.
1994 MADNESS email list first messages sent.
1994 The first People
of Color Conference was held at the Seventh Annual Mental Health Cultural Diversity Conference in Cleveland, Ohio, sponsored
by the Ohio Department of Mental Health and co-sponsored by the People of Color Caucus, now known as the American Association
of People of Color Mental Health Consumers. The conference was facilitated by the National Mental Health Consumers’
1994 Prozac Nation: Young and Depressed in
America. by Elizabeth Wurtzel.
1994 DSM-IV groups sexual dysfunction, the
paraphilias, and gender identity disorder under the heading “sexual and gender identity disorders”.
1994 The first class of the Consumer Service Training graduates in Contra Costa County, California.
This is the first training for Community Support Workers where the curriculum, class design, and training were all implemented
and taught by other consumer/survivors (Pat Risser, Jay Mahler, Mary Carley, etc.) with a recovery orientation.
1994 Empirical Correction of Seven Myths about Schizophrenia
with Implications for Treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 90(suppl.384): 140-146. Harding, C. M. and Zahniser, J.M.
1994 Darby Penney, Celia Brown, Peter Stastny, and Neil Covatta were successful in creating
the first civil service Peer Specialist Title in the United States.
the medical model won’t work. Unpublished manuscript. by Sally Clay.
Rocking the Cradle of Sexual Politics. by Louise Armstrong. US: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
1994 Why the medical model won’t work. Unpublished manuscript. by Sally Clay.
1994 The writing on the wall: Women’s autobiography and the asylum. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Press. Wood, M. E.
1994 The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual has grown to 374 mental disorders in the DSM-IV from the 112 mental disorders in its initial, 1952
1994 Undercurrents: A Therapist’s Reckoning with Her Own Depression. by Martha
1994 Empowering the Disempowered Ike Powell &
1994 Something is happening: The contemporary consumer and psychiatric
survivor movement in historical context. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 15, 55-70. by B. Everett.
1994 The first class of the Consumer Service Training graduates in Contra Costa County, California.
This is the first training for Community Support Workers where the curriculum, class design, and training were all implemented
and taught by other consumer/survivors (Pat Risser, Jay Mahler, Mary Carley, etc.) with a recovery orientation.
1994 Coalition is incorporated on its own as two nonprofits: Support Coalition Northwest (based
in Oregon) & Support Coalition International, later merged.
Will Come the Light: A View From Inside the Autism Puzzle. by T. A. McKean.
A Drinking Life: A Memoir. by Pete Hamill.
1994 C/S/X in New York State negotiate
official policy change: OMH adopts goal of
eliminating restraint and seclusion.
In Other Words. by Marie Cardinal.
1995 Mental Health Confidence Scale (Carpinello et. al.) (republished
1995 Campaigns Against Racist Federal Programs by the Center for the Study of Psychiatry
and Psychology.Retrieved 7/8/2000 from http://www.breggin.com/racistfedpol.html Journal of African American Men 1:No. 3, 3-22.
Winter 1995/96 Breggin,Peter R.
1995 Phone at Nine Just to Say You’re Alive. London.
by Linda Hart.
1995 Prairie Reunion. B. J. Scot.
1995 Peaking Out: How My Mind Broke Free from the Delusions in Psychiatry. by Al Siebert.
1995 A Shining Affliction: A Story of Harm and Healing
in Psychotherapy. by Annie Rogers.
1995 An Unquiet Mind: A Memoir of Moods
and Madness. by Kay Redfield Jamison.
1995 How to Become a Schizophrenic: The Case Against Biological
Psychiatry (2nd ed). Everett, Washington: Apollyon Press. Modrow, J.
In 1995 President Clinton appoints Rae Unzicker to the National Council on Disability.
Secret Life: An Autobiography. by Michael Ryan.
1995 The National Mental Health Consumer and
Ex-Patient Organizations and Resources (SC SHARE, 1995), all 50 states and the DIstrict of Columbia are represented with 235
different consumer organizations. There are also 19 national sources from which to obtain self-help information and
1995 Quivers. by Robin Quivers.
1995 Enter Stage Left.
Stage 2! Youth Empowerment. (editors Kim Baez and Lauren Tenney).
Politics’ close to home. American Psychologist. 50, 49-50. by Andrea Blanch and Darby Penney.
1995 The Managed Care Consortium (MCC) formed in 1955 to create educational opportunities for a
host of advocacy organization across the United States. The MCC, with funding from CMHS, encouraged teams to form in
each state to impact the development of managed care programs.
1995 When the Music’s Over:
My Journey into Schizophrenia. by R. Burke. (editors R. Gates & R. Hammond).
Restraint and Seclusion: The Model for elimination of their use in healthcare" by Maggie Bennington-Davis, MD and Tim
Murphy, MS. HCPro.
1995 CMHS hires first Consumer Affairs Specialist.
1995 Beyond bedlam: Contemporary women psychiatric survivors speak out. Chicago: Third Side Press. Grobe,
1995 St. Paul, Minnesota sponsored by the National Empowerment Center Returning to Our Roots:
Rights and Renewal.
1995 Folie à Deux: An Experience of One-to-One Therapy. London.
by Rosie Alexander.
1995 The Beast: A Reckoning with Depression. by Tracy
1995 Madness in America: Cultural and Medical Perceptions of Mental Illness before
1914. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, Gamwell, Lynn,and Tomes,Nancy.
The Youth Empowerment Association! (YEA! ) becomes Stage 2! Youth Empowerment in New York City and is awarded contract to
create peer support in state-operated children’s psychiatric centers.
Diary of a Fat Housewife: A True Story of Humor, Heartbreak and Hope. by Rosemary Green.
1995 Justice for All was organized by Justin Dart and others in Washington, D.C.
1995 How to Become a Schizophrenic: The Case Against Biological Psychiatry (2nd ed). Everett, Washington:
Apollyon Press. Modrow, J.
1995 They Say You’re Crazy. by Paula Caplan.
Addison Wesley Publishing Co.
1995 Families Together became an official state organization of
the Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health, a national, parent-run organization focused on the needs of
children and youth with emotional, behavioral or mental health disorders and their families.
Howie the Harp (1953-1995) known for his peacemaking and mediating with words and music, his harmonica never far
away from him. He was founder of the Oakland Support Center and also of Altered States of the Arts, a national network
of artists, writers and performers.
1995 The American Association of People with Disabilities
(AAPD) was founded in Washington, D.C. (Andy Imparato).
bedlam: Contemporary women psychiatric survivors speak out. Chicago: Third Side Press. Grobe, J.
1995 Beyond Bedlam: Contemporary Women Psychiatirc Survivors Speak Out. Jeanine Grobe, editor.
1995 A memorial was held in New York City for Howie the Harp followed by a march and protest
of Involuntary Outpatient Commitment. Hundreds attend.
1995 The Liar’s Club: A Memoir.
by Mary Karr.
1995 Recovery: The only way to go, The Voice: The Newsletter
of the Coalition of Consumer Self-Advocates & Oasis Drop-In Center, Providence. RI. by Emmel, W.
The Day Room: A Memoir of Madness and Mending. by Kathleen Crowley.
1995 survey of ECT patients by the UK Advocacy Network revealed that one-third of 300 patients surveyed believed ECT had damaged
them and an astounding 80% claimed it had irreparably destroyed their memory.
The Cradle will Fall. by Michele G. Remington and Carl S. Burak.
1995 ‘Identity Politics’
close to home. American Psychologist. 50, 49-5 by Andrea Blanch and Darby Penney.
The Magic Daughter: A Memoir of Living with Multiple Personality Disorder. by J. Phillips.
Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women’s Health Activism 1890 -1950. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania
Press. Smith, Susan L.
1996 Talking to Angels: A Life Spent at High Latitudes.
by Robert Perkins.
1996 Phantom Illness: Shattering the Myth of Hypochondria.
by Carla Cantor (with Brian Fallon).
1996 Mental health services recipients:
Their role in Shaping organizational policy. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 23, 547-553. by Fisher, W., Penney,
D., and Earle, K.
1996 CSPNJ expanded the number of Self-help Centers to
22. These centers are located across New Jersey in 18 counties.
1996 The Scent of Dried Roses.
London. by Tim Lott.
1996 Moonlight,Magnolias and Madness: Insanity in South Carolina from the
Period to the Progressive Era.Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. McCandless,Peter.
1996 First time a shock machine manufacturer pays money to a survivor.
1996 God Head. by Scott Zwiren.
1996 Surfing the Blues. Sydney, Australia.
by Catherine Rzecki.
1996 Recovery items developed in Canton OH (Ralph, Lambric
1996 The National Consumer, Family, and Advocate Leadership Conference on State Mental
Health Care Reform and Managed Care was held in Philadelphia.
A Love Story. by Caroline Knapp.
1996 The Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 passes, barring insurance
companies and large self-insured employers from placing annual or lifetime dollar limits on mental health coverage.
This is the first Federal law establishing limited parity for mental health and health care insurance coverage.
1996 A Message from God in the Atomic Age (trans. Gregory Rabassa). by Irene Vilar.
1996 Hearing Voices: Resistance Among Psychiatric Survivors and Consumers. Maria Duerr presented
this thesis about the history of the psychiatric survivor movement for her Masters Degree in Anthropology at the California
Institute of Integral Studies in June.
1996 Sunnybrook: A True Story with Lies. Vancouver. by
1996 In the Jaws of the Black Dogs: A Memoir of Depression. Toronto. by
Jon Bentley Mays.
1996 The National Consumer, Family, and Advocate Leadership Conference on State
Mental Health Care Reform and Managed Care was held in Philadelphia.
Mental health services recipients: Their role in Shaping organizational policy. Administration and Policy in Mental Health,
23, 547-553. by W. Fisher, Penney, D. & Earle, K.
1996 CSPNJ opened our Northern Regional
Office in collaboration with the MHA in Passaic County to provide support services to consumers being discharged from Greystone
Park Psychiatric Hospital.
1996 Recovery as a journey of the heart. Psychiatric
Rehabilitation Journal 19 (3) p. 91-97. by Pat Deegan.
1996 Orlando, Florida
sponsored by the Clearinghouse Creating Healing Alternatives for Real Health Care Reform.
1996 National Consumer, Family and Advocate Leadership Conference on State Mental Health Care Reform
and Managed Care, Philadelphia, PA.
1996 Welcome to my Country: A Therapist’s Memoir of
Madness. by Lauren Slater.
1996 According to a report in The Philadelphia
Inquirer (“Mentally ill’s safety net found strong,” 5/13/96), the overwhelming majority of those released
from Byberry when it closed were subsequently found to be living successfully in the community.
Consumers and Survivors begin restoring state hospital cemeteries in Georgia and Colorado with many states to follow.
1997 Civil Rights Of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA): Authorizes the U.S. Attorney General
to investigate conditions of confinement at state and local government institutions such as prisons, jails, pretrial detention
centers, juvenile correctional facilities, publicly operated nursing homes, and institutions for people with psychiatric or
1997 A working definition of empowerment. Psychiatric
Rehabilitation Journal, 20, 43-46. Chamberlin, J.
1997 American Psychoanalytic
Association becomes first mainstream mental health organization to support marriage equality (same-sex marriage).
1997 WRAP (Wellness Recovery Action Plan) published by Mary Ellen Copeland.
1997 A consumer-constructed Empowerment Scale to measure empowerment among users of mental health services.
Psychiatric Services, 48, 1042-1047. Rogers, E., Chamberlin, J., et al.
Memory Slips: A Memoir of Music and Healing. by Linda Katherine Cutting.
1997 Skating to Antarctica.
London. by Jenny Diski.
1997 Recovery and empowerment for people with psychiatric
disabilities. Journal of Social Work and Health Care, 25, 11–24. Deegan, P. (1997).
Camarillo State Mental Hospital, Camarillo, CA closed. In use from 1936-1997.
research and stakeholder involvement in community mental health evaluation and research. Workshop in participatory research,
seventh annual conference on state mental health agency services research, program evaluation, and policy, University of Southern
Maine. Ralph, R. O.
1997 Call me crazy: Stories from the mad movement. Vancouver:
Press Gang Publishers. Shimrat, I.
"Creating Sanctuary: The Evolution
of Sane Societies" by Sandra Bloom, MD. Harcourt.
Prozac Highway. Vancouver,. by Persimmon Backbridge.
1997 Women and Madness,
by Phyllis Chesler. NY, NY: Four Walls Eight Windows.
1997 Making Us Crazy, DSM-The
Psychiatric Bible & Creation of Mental Disorders. Kutchins, Herb & Kirk, Stuart A., NY, NY: The Free Press.
1998 Centers for Consumer Research & Training instituted, Kentucky Department of Mental
Health & Missouri Institute of Mental Health
1998 Westchester Youth Forum
in New York State becomes part of SAMHSA System of Care grant.
The Center for Mental Health Services funded a cooperative agreement with 8 sites and a coordinating center to study the effects
of consumer operated services added to traditional services (GFA 98-04).
Crisis Hostel Healing Scale (Dumont).
1998 Confessions of a noncompliant patient. Journal of
Psychosocial Nursing, 36, 49-52. by Judi Chamberlin.
1998 Recovery: the behavioral
healthcare guideline of tomorrow. Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow, June, 1998. Fisher, D.
Empowerment and women’s mental health services. In B.L. Levin, A. K. Blanch, and A. Jennings (Eds.), Women’s mental
health services: A public health perspective (pp. 127-154). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. by Kalinowski, C. and Penney, D.
1998 Recovery: the behavioral healthcare guideline of tomorrow. Behavioral
Healthcare Tomorrow, June, 1998. Fisher, D.
1998 PACE survivor led report
on gay/lesbian/bisexual experience of mental health services. (UK)
Building a Multicultural Research Agenda. The Mental Health Empowerment Project in Albany, the Center for the
Study of Issues in Public Mental Health, and the Hispanic Research Center at Fordham College, in conjunction with members
of the New York State Office of Mental Health Multicultural Advisory Committee, have been actively working together to generate
a research agenda relevant to Native American, African American, Hispanic and Asian recipient issues.
1998 Re-Envisioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture and Gender in Clinical Practice. New York: The
Guilford Press. McGoldrick, Monica, editor.
1998 Hartford Courant publishes
Pulitzer Prize Winning article on Restraint and Seclusion.
1998 Centers for
Consumer Research & Training instituted, Kentucky Department of Mental Health & Missouri Institute of Mental Health.
1998 Trauma and abuse histories: Connections to diagnosis of mental illness, implications for policy
and service delivery. (National Association of Consumer/Survivor Mental Health Administrators, Position Paper, 1-6). by Mary
1998 The War Against Children of Color: Psychiatry Targets Inner
City Youth. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press. Breggin,P.R.& Breggin,G.R
U.S. General Accounting Office initiates investigations on the use of Seclusion and Restraint. Congressional Hearings
1998 APA officially criticizes efforts to change sexual orientation.
1998 Recovery Scale (Young and Ensing).
and Other Alternatives to Acute Psychiatric Hospitalization: A Personal and Professional Review. The Journal of Nervous and
Mental Disease, 187:142- 149. Mosher, L.
Houston, Texas sponsored by CONTAC The New Millenium: Looking Back-Moving Forward.
Drug May Be Your Problem. New York: Perseus Publishing. Breggin, P. & Cohen, D.
New York State Office of Mental Health creates position: Children's Recipient Affairs Specialist and establishes a Statewide
Youth Advisory Council.
1999 The Prime Directive Initiative, later to be called the Choice thru
Voice Project (2002) Laura Cisco & Lauren Tenney. Edited by the Statewide Youth Advisory Council to the New
York State Office of Mental Health. The Prime DIrective Initiative is listed as a best practice in the Roadmap
to Seclusion and Restraint Free Mental Health Services. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 05-4055. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health
Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and other publications.
Supreme Court rules in Olmstead v. L.C., 527 U.S. 581, that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), undue institutionalization
qualifies as discrimination by reason of disability including people with a mental disability. The Olmstead decision is groundbreaking
because it rules that people with disabilities have a right to services in the community outside of institutions.
1999 Life at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum 1857– 1997. College Station:Texas A&M
University Press, Sitton,Sarah C.
1999 The first National
Summit of Mental Health Consumers and Survivors, in August, in Portland, Ore., was organized by the National Mental Health
Consumers’ Self-Help Clearinghouse with the help of the Oregon Office of Consumer Technical Assistance, and co-sponsored
by consumer/survivor groups from around the country. Its goal was to develop consensus around the issues of greatest concern
to consumers and survivors and create action plans for future work. The unifying principle was the construction of a platform
from which the movement could influence national policy.
1999 “The Labeling
Theory of Mental Disorder (II): The Consequences of Labeling.” Pp. 361-376 in A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health,
edited by Allan V Teresa L. Scheid. NY, NY: Cambridge University Press. Link, Bruce G. and Jo C. Phelan.
1999 Ticket to Work and Work Incentive Improvement Act: Removes barriers that have required people
with disabilities to choose between health care coverage and work. The law also increases consumer choice in obtaining
rehabilitation and vocational services through the establishment of a Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency program.
1999 New York State Office of Mental Health creates the Nation’s first known Statewide
Youth Advisory Council. The YAC is comprised of young people who had first-hand experiences of the children’s
mental health system.
1999 New York State Office of Mental Health creates position: Children's
Recipient Affairs Specialist.
landmark U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health: A report of the Surgeon General is released and a White House conference
on Mental Health is convened.
1999 Ensuring that people with psychiatric
disabilities are the leaders of self-determination and consumer controlled initiatives. Prepared for the National Leadership
Summit on Self-Determination and Consumer Direction and Control, Bethesda, MD, October 21-23, 1999. Fisher, D. & Ahern,
1999 National Leadership Summit on Self-Determination and Consumer Direction
Control, Bethesda, MD, October 21-23, 1999.
1999 Reclaim Bedlam campaign, protesting
at the celebration of the 750 year anniversary of the UK's first mental hospital, (the original 'Bedlam', now the Maudsley
Hospital in London), which led to the formation of Mad Pride.
A Social History of America. Carroll & Graf, 1999. p 321. Barr A.
The National Council on Disability’s decision to establish a Youth Advisory group was finalized.
1999 The Health Care FInancing Administration (HCFA), currently
called the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) publishes an Interim Final Rule on the uses of Seclusion and Restraint
in an effort to protect patient's rights - and lives. The rule states that a doctor or licensed practitioner must, within
one hour, do a face-to-face assessment of the person in restraint or seclusion.
The New York State Office of Mental Health prohibits use of the straightjacket.
Hillary Clinton, first lady, makes remarks at White House Conference on Mental Health. Many people from the Consumer,
Survivor, and Ex-Patient Movements attend.
2000 Alternatives 2000 is held
in Nashville, Tennessee sponsored by the National Empowerment Center. Theme: A New Vision of Recovery.
It has to be about Choice. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Lauren Tenney
Accounts of Consumers/Survivors: Insights and Implications. Diane T. Marsh.
2000 Recovery. Psychiatric
Rehabilitation Skills. Ruth Ralph.
2000 The Drug Addiction Treatment Act allows
qualified physicians to dispense and prescribe schedule III, IV or V narcotic drugs or combinations of such drugs approved
by the FDA for the treatment of heroin addiction.
2000 Regional Bill N. 561 states that in the
Piedmont Region, in accordance with the deliberations of the United Nations, of the European Council and of the Italian Republic
in matters of human rights, it is [hereby] forbidden to use ECT on children, the elderly and pregnant women, and if ECT is
to be used at all, the psychiatrist in charge must adhere to strict guidelines including supplying both in writing and verbally
the possible harmful side effects of the treatment.
2000 Out of her mind. The modern library.
Edited by Rebecca Shannonhouse.
2000 Vanessa Jackson first shares In Our OwnVoice at a national
c/s/x conference in Nashville,Tennessee.
2000 The long road back. Journal of Clinical Psychology.
2000 Mad In America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment
of the Mentally Ill. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing. Whitaker, R.
Native Perspectives on the Hiawatha Asylum for Insane Indians by Pemina Yellow Bird.
(Subcommittee of Consumer/Survivor Issues) is created as a federally supported body to advise the Center for Mental Health
Services (CMHS) National Advisory Council on consumer/survivor perspectives and issues
Agents, not Objects. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Ronald Bassman.
2000 Review of recovery
literature: A synthesis of a sample of recovery literature. Alexandria, VA: National Technical Assistance Center, Ruth Ralph.
2000 Lay My Burden Down: Unraveling Suicide and the Mental Health Crisis Among African-Americans.
Boston: Beacon Press,2000. Poussaint,M.D.,Alvin,and Alexander, Amy.
SAMHSA funds Children's Welfare League of America 3-year Seclusion/Restraint project for children's residential programs.
2000 Psychology Practitioners and Schizophrenia: A view from both sides. Journal of Clinical
Psychology. Frederick L. Frese III.
2000 What recovery means to us: Consumers’ perspectives.
Community Mental Health Journal, 36, 315-328. Mead, S. & Copeland, M.
2000 The Youth Advisory
Committee to the National Committee on Disability obtained its charter under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.
2000 The Highlander Statement of Concern and Call to Action is created.
2000 The National Council on Disability (NCD) publishes, "From Privileges to Rights: People
Labeled with Psychiatric Disabilities Speak for Themselves.
Clinton signs the Children's Health Care Act into law establishing national standards that restrict the use of seclusion and
restraint in all health facilities.
2000 Mental Health
Confidence Scale (Carpinello et. al.)
2000 APA issues two position statements,
one in support of same sex civil unions and the other asking ethical psychiatrists to refrain from practicing conversion or
2000 Goldie Marks of Toccoa,
Georgia, past president of the Georgia Mental Health Consumer Network, continues to advocate for herself and other mental
2000 Committing social change for psychiatric patients:
The consumer/survivor movement. Humanity & Society, 24, 389-404. Morrison, L.
Talking Points: Why Forcing Psychiatric Drugs into Your Home is a Bad Idea. Dendron, 43:20-23. Oaks, D.
The National People of Color of Consumer/Survivors Network, co-founded by
Jacki Mckinney and Celia Brown.
2001 Larry Fricks leads Georgia, first state to make peer
specialist services Medicaid-reimbursable on a statewide basis.
Rae Unzicker, one of the founders of NARPA (National for Rights Protection and Advocacy) died in her home in Sioux Falls,
South Dakota, on March 22, 2001. She was 52.
2001 Alternatives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
sponsored by the Clearinghouse Freedom to Remember, Freedom to Choose, Freedom to Dream.
During the year 2000, the Family Region Family Support Coalition made the decision to formalize its purpose and mission by
becoming a non-profit organization, the Children’s Mental Health Coalition of Western New York.
2001 Freedom Center is established in Massachusetts
National Empowerment Center (NEC) (1999). Consumer/Survivor History Project.
2001 In Our Own Voice: African American Stories of Oppression, Survival
and Recovery in Mental Health Systems. Monograph Series. by Vanessa Jackson.
Charles Curie begins term as SAMHSA administrator.
2001 "There is marked
variability in the nature of ECT practices in community settings. The extent to which this variability impacts on the benefits
and risks of ECT needs to be examined." PRUDIC c1 a1, M. OLFSON a1 and H. A. SACKEIM. Electro-convulsive
therapy practices in the community.
2001 Toronto Psychiatric Survivors align
with Mad movement via Mindfreedom and hold yearly celebration on July 14, Bastille Day.
Restorying psychiatric disability: Learning from first person recovery narratives. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24,
335-343. Ridgway, P.
2001 Community Enterprises Corporation
(CEC) initiated matched savings and asset building programs. Consumers Savings Club (CSC) enables residents to save for short-term
financial goals and the Individual Development Account (IDA) program., which is a federal program that enables participants
to save for goals such as obtaining a post-secondary education, starting a business, or buying a house.
2001 The first Survivor Worker's conference in Manchester. (UK).
The Commonwealth of Virginia House of Delegates approved a resolution expressing regret for its eugenics practices between
1924 and 1979.
2001 CSPNJ initiated a Boarding Home Outreach (BHO) project in select counties
throughout New Jersey.
2001 NARPA holds its 20th Annual Rights conference in Niagra Falls, New
2001 Salvation: Black People and Love. New York: William Morrow. bell hooks.
Tardive Dyskinesia/Tardive Dystonia National Association: A Beginner's Guide
to Tardive Dyskinesia. Prepared for the
2001 National Association for Rights Protection
and Advocacy (NARPA) Conference, November 1-4, Niagara Falls, NY.
2001 Beyond Prozac---- Dr.Terry Lynch.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental Health: Race, Culture
and Ethnicity ñ A Supplement to Mental
Health: Report of the Surgeon General.
Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service,
Office of the
Reaching Across with the Arts, a self-help arts manual (2001) edited by Gayle Bluebird funded by SAMHSA.
2001 Lunatic Literature: New York State’s The Opal
(1851-1860). UMI. by MaryRose Eannace.
2002 " . . . quality of life depends
on a job, a decent place to live, and a date on Saturday night." Charles G. Currie, M.A., A.C.S.W., SAMHSA Administrator.
2002 Infusing recovery based principles into mental health services, a white
paper by people who are NYS consumers, survivors, patients and ex-patients.
2002 The Law Project
for Psychiatric Rights (PsychRights) was incorporated as an Alaska non-profit on November 6, 2002, to undertake a coordinated,
strategic, legal effort seeking to end the abuses against people diagnosed with mental illness through individual legal representation.
2002 Liberation by Oppression A comparative study of slavery and psychiatry. Thomas Szasz.
2002 SAMHSA's report to Congress on co-occurring mental and substance use disorders identifies barriers
to appropriate treatment and support services and proposes a system in which co-occurring disorders are addressed and treated
as primary illnesses.
2002 Justin Dart died, June 22, 2002.
Icarus Project is established in New York City.
2002 Alternatives in Atlanta, Georgia sponsored
by CONTAC. Theme: Building Partnerships: Strengthening Networks & Taking Action Together.
2002 Fourty-one states have laws requiring outpatients to follow treatment; involuntary outpatient
2002 American Academy of Pediatrics issues
position statement in support of second parent adoptions for same-sex couples; APA follows suit with a similar position statement
that same year.
2002 A Personal History of the Consumer
Movement by Sally Clay .
2002 Community Enterprise Corporation CEC, initiated
a social enterprise strategy for the purpose of providing permanent, meaningful employment for low-income people with and
without disabilities that would provide extensive training and career-development opportunities as well as the ability to
progress towards economic self-sufficiency,
2002 The Law Project for Psychiatric
Rights (PsychRights) was incorporated as an Alaska non-profit on November 6, 2002, to undertake a coordinated, strategic,
legal effort seeking to end the abuses against people diagnosed with mental illness through individual legal representation.
2002 Working Cures: Healing, Health and Power on Southern Slave Plantations. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press. Fett, C.
2002 Mad in America: Bad science,
bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books. by Robert Whitaker.
2002 No Force campaign set up to oppose plans to extend forced treatment to the community.
2002 Study shows antidepressant pills don’t
work much better than placebos.. More than half of the patients on antidepressants improved no more than those on placebos,
Kirsch says. “They should have told the American public about this. The drugs have been touted as much more effective
than what they are.” (USA Today, July 8, 2002).
Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice. British Columbia: New Society Publisher. Paul Kivel.
2002 In May a Florida judge orders a developmentally disabled woman to be sterilized following the abortion
of her pregnancy which was the result of a rape that occurred in her group home. Is this the beginning of a modern revival
2002 In September, over 200 disabled activists march 144 miles from the Liberty
Bell in Pennsylvania to Capitol Hill in Washington, DC to demand passage of the Medicaid Community-based Attendants Services
and Supports Act (MICASSA) and “no more stolen lives.”
2003 A small group of survivors throughout the country,
including David Oaks, Vince Boehm, Krista Erickson, David Gonzalez, Roma Sayama, and
Mickey Weinberg, gathered in Pasadena, CA, to start what became a 22-day hunger strike to press for human rights and choice
in psychiatry. They demanded that the mental health industry provide evidence for its common claim that “mental illness
is biologically-based.” No corroborating evidence was ever produced.
MindFreedom Ireland was founded.
2003 Coming off Psychiatric Drugs: Successful
Withdrawal from Neuroleptics, Antidepressants, Lithium, Carbamazepine and Tranquilizers. Author. Peter Lehmann (ed.).
2003 The American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric
Nurses Association, American Hospital Association, National Association of Psychiatric Systems and the Children's Welfare
League make policy statements and recommendations on reducing and eliminating restraint and seclusion.
2003 SAMHSA holds, 'A National Call to the Elimination of Seclusion and Restraint".
2003 The Access to Recovery initiative is established to enable individuals seeking drug and alcohol
treatment with vouchers to pay for a range of appropriate community-based services.
2003 President George W. Bush's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health calls for the transformation
of mental health care in the U.S. to one focused on recovery.
2003 The Access to Recovery initiative
is established to enable individuals seeking drug and alcohol treatment with vouchers to pay for a range of appropriate community-based
2003 SAMHSA funds 8 three-year incentive grants to create alternatives
to Seclusion and Restraint.
2003 Shifting: The Double Lives of Black Women in America. New York:
Harper Collins Publishers. Jones, Charise and Kumea Shorter-Gooden.
2003 The Institute for Wellness and Recovery Initiatives formed to provide peer delivered wellness
and recovery training and education to assist in mental health system transformation in New Jersey.
2003 Dan Fisher is appointed to the Freedom Commission.
President George W. Bush's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health releases report and calls for the transformation of mental
health care in the U.S. to one focused on recovery including that the system be consumer and family driven.
2003 SAMHSA holds national "Call to Action" event on Seclusion/Restraint in Washington,
2003 In May a Florida judge orders a developmentally disabled woman to be sterilized following
the abortion of her pregnancy which was the result of a rape that occurred in her group home. Is this the beginning
of a modern revival of eugenics?
2003 Report released by The President's New
Freedom Commission on Mental Health.
2003 Friendly Spike Theatre Band who
has been taking part all along, along with Parkdale Community Legal Services and Parkdale Activity Recreation centre, puts
a Mad Pride into its season, brings in ongoing sponsorship and administration, begins working with City of Toronto to proclaim
Mad Pride as an official City of Toronto Day.
2003 US Supreme Court strikes
down as unconstitutional state sodomy laws in the 13 states that still criminalized consensual, adult homosexual behavior.
2003 Quincy Boykin (1944-2003) His story provides a rare glimpse into the trauma created by
a crushed and compromised revolution for black liberation and wide-scale societal transformation.
2003 David Hilton (1953-2003)5, the first director of an Office of Consumer Affairs
in New Hampshire, dies in Spokane, Washington.
2003 New Freedom Commission
on Mental Health's Recommendations for transforming the mental health system including that the system be consumer and family
2003 Opened serious and sustained Media Campaign on going in Ireland.
2004 An effort by advocates including Larry Roberts, & Carole Hayes-Collier, working with
OMH Recipient Affairs, was successful in getting OMH to overturn the oppressive recommendations of a task force on restraint
& seclusion, and replace it with a policy with the goal of eliminating restraint & seclusion. Earlier
work on this was also done by Howie the Harp.
2004 "Lost Cases, Recovered
Lives: Suitcases from a State Hospital Attic," seen by over half a million visitors. Exhibit at the NYS museum curated
by Darby Penney & Peter Stastny.
2004 President George W. Bush plans to
screen whole US population for mental illness.
2004 INTAR, the International
Network of Treatment Alternatives for Recovery, is an international summit of world renowned psychiatrists, people who have
experienced psychiatric treatment, family members, psychologists, and other mental health professionals who meet annually
to counter the belief that people with diagnoses such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder can never completely recover.
2004 Bush plans to screen whole US population for mental illness.
SAMHSA/CMHS National Consensus Statement on Mental Health Recovery states that mental health recovery is a journey of healing
and transformation enabling a person with a mental health problem to live a meaningful life in the community of his or her
choice while striving to achieve his or her full potential.
Psychological Association issues positions statement in support of marriage equality.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) directed manufacturers of all antidepressant drugs to revise the labeling for their
products to include a boxed warning and expanded warning statements that alert health care providers to an increased risk
of suicidality (suicidal thinking and behavior) in children and adolescents being treated with these agents, and to include
additional information about the results of pediatric studies.
Transformation to a Recovery-Based Mental Health System”. Delivered at the Consumer Initiatives Summit Conference in
2004 ”Consumer-Directed Transformation to a Recovery-Based Mental Health System”.
Delivered at the Consumer Initiatives Summit Conference, March, 2004. Fisher, D. and Chamberlin, J.
Infusing recovery based principles into mental health services, a white paper by people who are NYS consumers, survivors,
patients and ex-patients.
2004 Alternatives in Denver, Colorado sponsored by the Clearinghouse.
Theme: Achieving the Promise of Recovery: New Freedom, New Power, New Hope
Hope on a Rope by John F. McCarthy. Ireland.
2005 Talking back to psychiatry: The consumer/survivor/ex-patient
movement. New York: Routledge. Morrison, L.
2005 APA issues a position statement
in support of same sex civil marriage.
2005 Janssen, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, markets
Risperdal (risperidone), an antipsychotic drug that grossed $2.3 billion in US sales in 2005.
Roadmap to Seclusion and Restraint Free Mental Health Services. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 05-4055. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental
Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
The World Health Organization announced they are dedicating International Human Rights Day, 10 December 2005 to all people
diagnosed with mental disorders "and the all-too-prevalent violations of their basic human rights."
Wall St. Journal, United Press International, WebMD and Time Magazine Pacific all cover the story that researchers have debunked
the "chemical imbalance" claim of psychiatric drug manufacturers.
Talking back to psychiatry: The consumer/survivor/ex-patient movement. New York: Routledge. Morrison, L.
Mental Disability Rights International (MDRI) released a 2005 report about human rights abuses in Turkey, including electroshock
of children. MDRI is a sponsor group of MindFreedom International.
American Psychiatric Association President Admits the Psychiatric Profession is Dominated by the "Bio-Bio-Bio" Pill
Model. APA President warns "Big Pharma's" huge "kickbacks and bribes" hurt credibility.
2005 Mother Jones exposes psychiatric drug screening.
The evolution of the survivor movement. Psychiatric Services, 57,1212-1216. Oaks, D. et al.
Depression an Emotion not a Disease. by Dr Michael Corry and Dr. Aine Tubridy.
2005 Official name change of all Support Coalition activities under one umbrella name of MindFreedom
2005 Separate and unequal: the legacy of racially segregated
hospitals. Monograph. Vanessa Jackson.
Joseph Rogers, a movement leader, receives the Heinz Award for the Human Condition, a prestigious award administered by the
Heinz Family Philanthropies, which is accompanied by an unrestricted $250,000 cash prize.
Alternatives in Phoenix, Arizona sponsored by the National Empowerment Center Leading the Transformation to Recovery: And
Still We Rise.
2005 RTE Dairy of a Madman. Ireland.
2006 US launches federal center on 'trauma informed' care. The US government
announces a new national center on care from a trauma perspective.
2006 The vote to establish
a national memorial being built at St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, D.C. is made.
Pfizer Inc (PFE.NYS), the world’s largest drugmaker, Thursday said in a regulatory filing that its outgoing CEO, Hank
McKinnell, would receive nearly $198 million in total compensation.
Mexico's Senate adjourned without passing an involuntary outpatient commitment law.
England's Rufus May comes to Toronto and urges Psychiatric Survivors to present a Bed Push during Mad Pride.
"Can You Dig It?" A participatory action research project on The Opal is coordinated in New York State.
2006 The took my depression and then medicated me into madness: co-constructed narratives of
SSRI-Induced Suicidality. Journal of Radical Psychology. by Rachel Liebert and Nicola Gavey.
An article reveals that the American Psychiatric Association is launching a curriculum in USA schools to promote their perspective
on the mental health system, which tends to promote psychiatric drugging. Funders of the APA's campaign are mainly drug companies
giving more than $400,000 in total.
2006 “They will find us and infect
our bodies” The views of adolescent inpatients taking psychiatric medication. Journal of Radical Psychology. by Brenda
2006 Who fancies to have a revolution here? The Opal Revisited
(1851-1860). Journal of Radical Psychology. by Lauren Tenney.
in Portland, Oregon is sponsored by CONTAC. Theme: Blazing the Trail to Recovery through Transformation.
Psychiatric Survivor Testimonials and Embodiment: Emotional Challenges to Medical Knowledge. Journal of Radical Psychology.
by Christopher Canning.
2006 Nineteen social work academics have signed an
open letter protesting the way the National Asociation of Social Workers (NASW) has entered into a financial relationship
with the huge psychiatric drug manufacturer Jannsen.
2006 National Coalition
of Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Organizations founded.
2006 The twenty-first
century's first human rights treaty was adopted by the United Nations a year ago and opened for ratification on March 30,
2006 Alaska Supreme Court Strikes Down Forced Psychiatric Drugging
2006 Anna Schuleit, A New York City-based artist who works on
transforming abandoned psychiatric institutions into memorials with art (such as Northampton State Hospital in Massachusetts)
won a MacArthur "Genius Award" of $500,000.
2006 Bastille Day 25th Annual Demonstration,
Vigil & Celebration in New York State led by the Alliance changed procedural issues concerning forced ECT with a 8 day
2006, Formation of the National Coalition of
Mental Health Consumer/survivor Organizations, consisting of statewide consumer-run groups and the consumer-run National TA
Centers. As of 2008, consists of 31 statewide groups and 4 TACs.
U.S. FDA approves Risperdal for "irritability" in autistic children as young as 5 years old.
Mother Jones September 2007 six-page article "School of Shock" by Jennifer Gonnerman.
2006-01-01 00:00:00 -0500
2006 A matter of definition:
Acknowledging Consumer/Survivor Experiences through Narrative. Journal of Radical Psychology. by Linda Morrison.
2006 On 23 November 2006 The New York Times ran a major article questioning the way young people
in the USA are frequently prescribed a "chemical cocktail" of prescribed psychiatric drugs.
2006 James P. Chasse, Jr. was a resident of Portland, Oregon,
USA diagnosed schizophrenic who died in police custody. Psychiatric survivors and mental health consumers marched from the
Alternatives 2006 conference to a memorial on 27 October 2006.
2006 BBC News:
Professors say psychiatric use of the term "schizophrenia" ought to be abolished because it's unscientific.
2006 The Electroshock Quotationary by Leonard Roy Frank .
Soul Survivor: A Personal Encounter with Psychiatry. by Mary and Jim Maddock.
2006 MindFreedom Radio Show has supported a nonviolent revolution in the mental health system.
2006 Peer Specialist Alliance of America.
2006 Launch of Hearing
Voices, Cork, Ireland.
2006 Alternative Sli Eile ( another way) became a reality
in Charleville, Cork, Ireland.
2007 A group of shareholders of Eli Lilly are
seeking to sue officers and directors of the corporation for illegal fraud regarding their psychiatric drug Zyprexa.
2007 On 15 August 207, the huge USA federal funding agency Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
has issued a long-awaited guideline about their funding of peer support mental health services.
2007 The Zyprexa Papers Scandal.
On the CBS television show "60 Minutes" on 30 September 2007, Katie Couric looks into the death of four-year-old
Rebecca Riley who was given multiple psychiatric drugs after being diagnosed "bipolar." The parents were charged
2007 Washington D.C.;s 'icon' lesbian activist and archivist Cheryl Ann Spector
died. She was 49.
2007 The Depression and Bipolar Alliance
grant to become National Technical Assistance Center.
International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology conference. International Center for the Study of Psychiatry
and Psychology (ICSPP) is a key network of dissident mental health professionals and allies who are willing to challenge abuse
in the mental health system and promote alternatives.
2007 The Crazy Bed-Push
from July 13, 2007, to Bristol.
2007 BBC reports that UK House of Lords may
make it far easier to coerce people living in their own homes who have not broken any laws to take psychiatric drugs against
2007 A new alliance called the "Opal Network" is beginning
in Lane County, Oregon to support the voice, empowerment and self-determination of mental health consumers and psychiatric
2007 MindFreedom affiliate in Maine began.
2007 MindFreedom Youth Campaign begins.
2007 A nonviolent
protest using banners and guerilla theater was held in and outside of the "First Eastern European Psychiatric Congress"
in Thessaloniki, Greece on 21 September 2007. The protest was by the Pan-Hellenic Coalition for Psychiatric Reform.
2007 Celebrate World Hearing Voices Day and 20 years of achievement, 14th September 2007.
2007 MindFreedom International presents a conference retreat supporting the
growth of workable alternatives to the mental health system entitled "Creative Revolution in Healing: Turning Our Minds
2007 Terence McLaughlin, editor of Asylum
magazine, dies. (1947-2007).
2007 A fight to be. A psychologist’s
experience from both sides of the locked door. Ronald Bassman.
Oregon groups of mental health consumers and psychiatric survivors have created a steering committee for a state-wide alliance
called "Oregon Consumer Suvivor Coalition" (OCSC).
National Public Radio's show "Justice Talking" featured discussions with representatives of 'both sides of the story'
about the issue of involuntary psychiatric drugging of people out in their own neighborhoods and homes using court orders.
The show aired the week of 20 August 2007.
2 July 2007 update: Simone D. has had more then 200 forced electroshocks. The State of New York went to court to give even
more. Simone D.'s attorney, Dennis Feld, fought valiantly. But the courts agreed to order even more forced electroshock. Electroshock
is also known as electroconvulsive therapy or ECT.
2007 MindFreedom South
Africa launched a new project in the summer of 2007, at the founding meeting of the Maitland Ubuntu Centre for Treatment:
Alternatives in Mental Health and PsychRights Advocacy.
Soundtimes Support Services Mad Pride Organizing group joins the effort and through their effort comes Mad Pride Toronto Bed
2007 The TV newsmagazine 60 Minutes exposed the torture and killing of a man with
mental and emotional problems inside prison through hour upon hour of agonizing restraint.
2007 Disability rights advocates marked December 3, 2007 - International Disabled Persons Day - by
launching RatifyNow, a global campaign based in the U.S. to maximize the number of nations that ratify the new Convention
on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
2007 November 20 is the Day of
Rememberence for Transgender communities as they gather across the country to commemorate those who have lost their lives
to hate-motivated violence and neglect.
2007 Alternatives in St. Louis, Missouri sponsored by
Spanning the Recovery Movement: Consumer Control and Choice.
NAPS, the National Association of Peer Specialists. They held their first conference in Denver.
2007 SAMHSA renews grants to create alternatives to Seclusion and Restraint.
2007 CMS's Final Rule concerning patients' rights goes into effect.
The 2007 Thomas J. Dodd Prize hfor International Justice and Human Rights has been given to Mental Disability Rights International,
a sponsor group of MindFreedom International.
2007 The August 15 letter from
CMS naming peer support as an evidenced based practice and providing states with guidelines to create a workforce of trained
peers who can bill Medicaid for peer support services to help transform mental health to strength-based recovery.
2007 In Toronto, Canada, 29 September 2007 is celebrated as Psychiatric Survivor Pride Day by
the Mad Pride Toronto Organizing Committee.
2007 The Recovery Learning Communities
(RLCs) were started, funded by the state, in Massachusetts.
2007 The American
Psychological Association vote against a ban of psychologists from helping interrogators at Guantanamo Bay and other U.S.
military detention centers. Instead, the Association voted for a milder resolution that banned about a dozen interrogation
techniques. Dissident psychologists protested the vote.
2007 Mother's Day Protests
of Electroshock in Ireland, Toronto and Montreal.
2007 BonkersFest 2007 on 2 June 2007 was a wonderful
success. There was a celebration of music, creativity, poetry, and strangeness! Mad Pride UK was one of the sponsors.
2007 Freedom Center's Bed Push and "Escape from Psychiatry" to celebrate Mad Pride!
2007 Not to be tabled: STOP forced “mental health” treatment.
Women’s Studies Quarterly, The Feminist Press. by Lauren Tenney
Representatives from National Consumer/Survivor groups from 7 countries (England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, US, Australia,
and New Zealand) that formed an international coalition called Interrelate.
Launch of report on 'The Adverse effects of Pharmaceuticals'. Ireland.
The first Electro Shock public protest in Cork, Ireland.
2007 Launch The Full
Shilling in Ireland.
2007 First Madman stands on Mental Health in General
Election in Ireland.
2008 Mad Pride Day July 14 - Bastille
Day - becomes Mad Pride Week July 14 - 20.
State Hospital in Pennsylvania to close December 2008.
2008 Green Body and Mind Declares Santa
Cruz a Psychiatric Drug-Free
2008 Branches of Ireland's
Full Shilling established in Kampala and Mbola Uganda.
2008 Mindfreedom Uganda established.
2008 The first Implementation Manual for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities addressed specifically to users and survivors of psychiatry.
2008 SAMHSA/CMHS National Wellness Summit.
Managed Care Consortium (MCC) formed in 1955 to create educational opportunities for a host of advocacy organization across
the United States. The MCC, with funding from CMHS, encouraged teams to form in each state to impact the development
of managed care programs.
2008 Nearly half of psychiatric hospital beds are
2008 CPSNJ developed the Economic Development Program under Community
Enterprises Corporation (formerly Butterfly Property Management) to provide economic development opportunities to low-income
people with special needs, in order to decrease reliance on public assistance and enable them to progress towards economic
2008 Agents in My Brain: How I Survived
Manic Depression. by Bill Hannon.
2008 The Lives They Left Behind. Darby Penney
and Peter Stastny (Bellevue Literary Press).
2008 Public television's "Frontline"
is airing a show Tuesday, 8 January 2008, on the psychiatric drugging of USA children, particularly with the super-powerful
"antipsychotic" or neuroleptic drugs.
UK's Guardian newspaper covers the news that a major study says SSRI antidepressant psychiatric drugs are no better than placebo.
2008 "Alternatives Beyond Psychiatry" co-edited by Peter Lehmann and Peter Stastny.
2008 Bonkersfest is a wonderful annual Mad Pride event in UK that brings
thousands of people together for creativity, music, costumes, strangeness and even a bit of education about human rights of
people in the mental health system!
2008 UilenSpiegel from Belgium celebrates its 10th Anniversary.
Seminar "Patient Rights en Patient Representation mental health care" on the 4th of October.
Alternatives 2008 in Buffalo, New York.
2008 Youth Power! in New York State
releases their Policy Agenda.